TITLE: Defining a Comprehensive School Health Program: An Interim Statement
ABSTRACT: An Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee has begun a study of comprehensive school health programs in grades K-12. These programs propose to combine health education, health promotion and disease prevention, and access to health and social services, at the school site. While earlier generations of school health programs were predominantly concerned with stemming the threat of infectious disease, such problems have now to a large extent been superseded by the "new morbidities"--injuries, violence, substance abuse, risky sexual behaviors, psychological and emotional disorders, poverty--and by concerns about many students' lack of access to reliable health information and health care. Comprehensive school health programs may be a promising approach for addressing many of these health-related problems of today's children and young people. This project examines the structure, operation, and possible outcomes of comprehensive school health programs and considers their status and potential for wider implementation. The final report will present findings and recommendations, which should be of interest to educators, professionals in health-related fields, families and policymakers. This interim statement sets forth a provisional definition of a comprehensive school health program, to serve as the basis for further work. To provide a general context for this definition, the interim statement reviews briefly the history of school health programming and examples of previous definitions and models for these programs. The interim statement also identifies additional questions and issues that emerged in the process of formulating the definition.
AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of the Director
FEDERAL CONTACT: William Harlan
PHONE NUMBER: 301-496-1508
PIC ID: 5586
PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine Washington, D.C.
TITLE: Evaluation of the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG)
ABSTRACT: This report evaluates the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) program. Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the ICBG is a program designed to protect human health, advance the conservation of biologically diverse ecosystems and promote sustainable economic development through the search for drugs to control diseases of concern to both developed and developing countries. Since 1993, the program has funded five individual cooperative biodiversity groups around the world. The study design attempts to: (1) accommodate the varied and non-standard implementations of the ICBG concept, (2) obtain broad coverage in terms of respondents, (3) maximize response rates and data quality, (4) minimize burden on ICBG Group Leaders and other respondents, and (5) incorporate cost and time efficiencies wherever possible. Among the benefits for source countries, the report finds: (1) scientific capacity has been developed through training and equipment, (2) development of economic activities, (3) equitable financial return and the protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) of source-country people, and (4) the potential sustainability of the individual ICBG projects is one of the strengths of the overall program. The report recommends that: (1) the ICBG program develop systems of technical assistance based on a combination of outside expertise and lessons learned across programs, (2) improve communications among the ICBGs, (3) consider developing a cross-ICBG database that includes work being done in collection, extractions, and drug development techniques, and (4) bring in the expertise of social scientists and source-country legal experts to the ICGB to ensure that the consensus-building, benefit sharing, and economic goals of this project are achieved. (Final report 177 pages, appendices bound separately.)
AGENCY SPONSOR: Fogarty International Center
FEDERAL CONTACT: J. Kirby Weldon
PHONE NUMBER: 301-496-2571
PIC ID: 6641
PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Battelle Corporation Arlington, VA
TITLE: Evaluation of the NHLBI Programs of Excellence in Molecular Biology: Summary Report and Final Report
ABSTRACT: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) developed and implemented a unique grant initiative, titled "Programs of Excellence in Molecular Biology" (POEMB). The objectives established for POEMB are to: (1) stimulate the use of molecular biology approaches in areas consistent with the mission of the NHLBI where the new techniques of molecular biology have been underutilized, and (2) provide opportunities for investigators who have the potential for establishing or redirecting research careers. This report evaluates the extent to which the initiative has realized the Institute's objectives and its appropriateness as a model for promoting the application of new research techniques and methodologies to existing areas of research. Research activity is characterized in cardiovascular and pulmonary research using the techniques of molecular biology in terms of research grant activity and publications, both before and after implementation of the POEMB, produced by groups who are supported by the POEMB and those who are not. Qualitative data were also collected on the effectiveness of the POEMB approach and on research accomplishments by POEMB applicants. The results of this study are applicable to the entire National Institutes of Health community because they explore innovative approaches to stimulating research interest in, and developing research resources for, future efforts in designated scientific areas.
AGENCY SPONSOR: National Heart,Lung,and Blood Institute
FEDERAL CONTACT: Carl A.Roth, Ph.D., L.L.M.
PHONE NUMBER: 301-496-3620
PIC ID: 5584
PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers Seattle, WA