Performance Improvement 1999. Human Services Policy

02/01/1999

TITLE: Building and Sustaining Community Partnerships for Teen Pregnancy Prevention: A Working Paper

ABSTRACT: This report stresses lasting community partnerships as a strategy for teen pregnancy prevention. Factors influencing teens' sexual and contraceptive behavior include characteristics of the teens themselves, their peers and sexual partners, their families and communities. Since no single factor is highly related to behavior, the establishment of comprehensive community partnerships will, it is believed, reduce teen pregnancy rates. The advantages of community partnerships include: (1) pooled resources, shared risks and increased efficiency; (2) integrated and coordinated services; (3) strengthened communities through partnerships. The report covers the process, as well as the importance of, partnership development.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Sonia Chessen

PHONE NUMBER: 202-690-8471

PIC ID: 7016

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Cornerstone Consulting Group, Inc. Washington, DC
 

TITLE: Aid to Families with Dependent Children: The Baseline

ABSTRACT: On August 22, 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). PRWORA replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the AFDC program prior to the enactment of PRWORA. The report: (1) traces the historical origins and evolution of the program over the past sixty years and provides detailed national and state data since the mid 1960s; (2) traces the trends in the caseload for the basic AFDC program and the unemployed parent component; (3) provides some descriptive statistics regarding the family and household characteristics; (4) examines the level of Federal and State spending on the program; (5) discusses the eligibility thresholds and the AFDC benefit levels; (6) reviews the research and the length of stays on AFDC, and the factors associated with entering and leaving the program; and (7) describes the Food Stamp Program and provides data from the Food Stamp Quality Control system that are relevant to describing the characteristics of the AFDC caseload up to the end of 1996. (Final report 123 pages plus appendix.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Gilbert Crouse

PHONE NUMBER: 202-401-6616

PIC ID: 6944

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Office of Human Services Policy, Washington D.C. 20201
 

TITLE: Ancillary Services to Support Welfare to Work

ABSTRACT: This project provides information on ancillary services, such as addiction treatment, housing needs, legal services, medical needs (including services such as eye and dental care) and mental health services, for both policymakers and State and local program operators. The project synthesizes and interprets existing research in a non-technical format, identifies gaps in knowledge, identifies service needs that are not being met and their potential impact, and highlights promising program practices that incorporate ancillary services into a long-term strategy to improve employment outcomes of welfare recipients.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Silva

PHONE NUMBER: 202-401-6638

PIC ID: 6740

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Plainsboro, NJ
 

TITLE: Approaches to Evaluating Welfare Reform: Lessons from Five State Demonstrations (Two Volumes)

ABSTRACT: Most States obtained waivers from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Food Stamp Program rules in order to implement welfare reform. Between 1993 and 1996, the Clinton administration approved waivers for 43 States. This project examined waiver demonstration projects in five States (California, Colorado, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin). Four of the five used an experimental evaluation design, while the fifth was quasi-experimental. The report addresses issues in five areas: (1) the choice between an experimental and quasi-experimental evaluation design, (2) sample design, (3) implementation of experimental evaluations, (4) data collection, and (5) analysis methods. The report found that: (1) most evaluations of State welfare reform demonstrations used an experimental design which involved random assignment of cases to an experimental group subject to welfare reform, or to a control group subject to pre-reform policies; (2) only one waiver (Wisconsin's) was approved with a quasi-experimental design, but this may become more common in a block grant environment; and (3) when designing a study sample, evaluation planners should ensure that the sample size is adequate and should design the sample so that applicant and recipient subgroups can support separate impact estimates. The sample should also be representative of the State as a whole. The report also found that four aspects of the implementation of an experimental evaluation require special care, including: (1) the timing of the random assignment, (2) the method of the random assignment, (3) ensuring that control group policies remain unchanged, and (4) preventing experimental and control group cases from changing status. The report also discusses data collection and analysis. (Final report Volume I 128 pages plus appendices, Volume II 8 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Audrey Mirsky-Ashby

PHONE NUMBER: 202-401-6640

PIC ID: 6050

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Urban Institute Washington, D.C.
 

TITLE: Building an Employment Focused Welfare System: Work First and Other Work-Oriented Strategies in Five States

ABSTRACT: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 made dramatic changes to the Nation's welfare system. States are now translating PRWORA's goal of a work-oriented , transitional assistance program into an operational reality. This report reviews the policy choices and experiences of six sites in five States that are engaged in making the transition from the more traditional welfare focus on cash assistance, to the new Work First focus on employment. Work First programs in Indiana, Massachusetts, Oregon, Virginia and Wisconsin exemplify a range of strategies being used to achieve increased employment among welfare recipients. Among these States there are two distinct Work First models in place: (1) The Work First, Work Mandate model (Massachusetts and Virginia) mandates employment participation as a requirement for continued cash assistance only a few months after initial receipt of benefits. (2) The Work First, Participation Mandate model (Oregon, Indiana, and Wisconsin) includes job search, education and training as allowable forms of participation throughout the period of cash receipt. Data were collected from site visits to State and local welfare offices between January and March of 1997. Since the passage of the PRWORA, Indiana and Wisconsin have implemented new work-based reforms, while the remaining States have made few changes. Thus, although the report measures State experiences at one point in time, it reflects States at different stages in their own evolution towards an employment-focused welfare system. (Executive summary 45 pages; final report 97 pages bound separately.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Elizabeth Lower-Basch

PHONE NUMBER: 202-690-6808

PIC ID: 6227

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Urban Institute Washington, D.C.
 

TITLE: Evaluating Two Welfare-to-Work Program Approaches: Implementation, Participation Patterns, Costs and Two-Year Impacts of the Portland (Oregon) Welfare-to-Work Program

ABSTRACT: This report is one of several in a series from an evaluation of mandatory welfare-to-work programs in seven sites, and presents findings from the Portland, Oregon welfare-to-work program run between 1993 and 1996. Through the program, Portland provided employment and support services to a broad cross-section of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) caseload, who were required to participate in program activities, or face reductions in their welfare grants. Although designed and implemented prior to the 1996 welfare reform law, the program's goals were very similar: to foster the self-sufficiency of adult recipients through increased employment and decreased welfare receipt. 5,547 single-parent AFDC applicants over the age of 21were randomly assigned to either a program group or a control group. This report describes the implementation, participation patterns and cost of the Portland program, and examines the effects of the program on employment, earnings and welfare receipt during the two years following enrollment in the program. The report finds that, over the two-year period: (1) employment levels increased 11 percent and earnings increased by $1,800 per sample member, a 35 percent increase over the control group's earnings; (2) the proportion of people with full-time jobs increased by 13 percent, and the number with employer-provided health benefits increased by 10 percent; (3) welfare expenditures were reduced by 17 percent; (4) the impact of the program was consistent for recipients with few barriers to employment and those typically considered hard-to-place; and (5) though program group members' average combined income from earnings, AFDC and Food Stamps was not substantially higher than that of control group members, more positive results at the end of the program period suggest that the control group may be better off in the future. See also PIC ID 6576, 6576.1, 6576.2, 6576.4.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Audrey Mirsky-Ashby

PHONE NUMBER: 202-401-6640

PIC ID: 6576.3

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, NY
 

TITLE: Moving Into Adulthood: Were the Impacts of Mandatory Programs for Welfare-Dependent Teenage Parents Sustained After the Programs Ended?

ABSTRACT: Teenage parents have a high probability of engaging in behaviors and lifestyles that place them and their children at risk of poor health and long-term dependency on welfare. Therefore, from 1987 through 1991, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the States of New Jersey and Illinois operated a demonstration to test innovative approaches for this population. The programs provided intensive case management support, allowances for child care costs and transportation and other training-related expenses, as well as a variety of workshops designed to develop the teenagers' life skills, motivations and abilities to pursue continued education, training, or employment. Failure to participate could result in sanctions, until the teenage parent complies with the program. This evaluation assesses the impact of the program on welfare use, education, literacy, employment, income, family formation, child care use, repeat pregnancies, and many other outcomes of current policy interest. The results of the program have informed State JOBS and other programs with teen cohorts. A five year follow-up has been completed, and includes information about impacts on the children. The child outcomes portion of the study analyzes the impact of the demonstration on the cognitive, emotional, social, and health well-being of the children of these young mothers. The data are comparable to the child impacts component of the JOBS evaluation.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Reuben Snipper

PHONE NUMBER: 202-690-5880

PIC ID: 2771.9

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Plainsboro, NJ
 

TITLE: National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies: Evaluating Two Welfare-to-Work Program Approaches: Two Year Findings on the Labor Force Attachment and Human Capital Development in Three Sites

ABSTRACT: This report is part of a larger study called the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies, formerly known as the JOBS Evaluation, which has randomly assigned more than 55,000 individuals in seven sites to groups eligible for specific welfare-to-work programs, and to control groups that do not participate in these programs. This study compares two distinct welfare-to-work strategies, labor force attachment (LFA) and human capital development (HCD), at each of three of sites: Atlanta, GA; Grand Rapids, MI; and Riverside, CA. At each site, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) applicants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a group subject to the LFA program, (2) a group subject to the HCD program, or (3) a control group not subject to any welfare-to-work program. This report presents findings on the implementation, participation patterns and costs of the two types of programs operated at each site. Additionally, the report assesses the two program approaches in promoting employment and reducing welfare expenditures after two years. The study finds that: (1) The LFA programs increased participation in the job search and the HCD programs increased participation in adult basic education. (2) Welfare sanction rates for nonparticipation were higher in the LFA and HCD programs than in previously studied programs, although higher sanction rates were not associated with higher rates of eventual participation in program activities. (3) The HCD programs cost approximately twice as much as the LFA programs. (4) Both programs increased individuals' two-year cumulative employment and earnings. (5) Both programs reduced welfare expenditures within the two-year follow-up period. The report concludes that a period of two years is insufficient to make a credible comparison between the two approaches. See also PIC ID series 5776. See PIC ID 6576 and 6576.2. (Executive summary 36 pages; Final report 276 pages plus appendices.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Audrey Mirsky-Ashby

PHONE NUMBER: 202-401-6640

PIC ID: 6576.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, NY
 

TITLE: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families

ABSTRACT: The well-being and development of children are a priority for all America, because they are our future and because the rapid growth in the number of children who live in immigrant families gives them special prominence. The Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE) of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) established the Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families in March, 1996. The committee was composed of 19 members with expertise in public health, pediatrics, child psychiatry, developmental psychology, population studies, anthropology, sociology, economics, public policy, law and history. The committee reviewed relevant research and literature and provided demographic descriptions of immigrant children and families. They characterized the development of immigrant children, providing information on the risks and protective factors associated with differential health and well-being of different immigrant groups, and about the delivery of health and social services to these groups. Although no conclusions were drawn concerning recent policy changes, the research offered a critical "baseline" portrait of immigrant children prior to welfare reform against which their status could be compared in the coming years. Specific recommendations were made concerning research, data collection and information dissemination that are intended to expand scientific knowledge about children in immigrant families, and help inform future public policy deliberations.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: David Nielsen

PHONE NUMBER: 202-401-6636

PIC ID: 6752

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: National Academy of Sciences, Board on Children and Families Washington, D.C.
 

TITLE: The Number and Cost of Immigrants on Medicaid: National and State Estimates

ABSTRACT: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWORA) of 1996 established new rules for the Medicaid eligibility of non-citizen immigrants. Under the Act, most immigrants entering the U.S. after August 1996 are not eligible for federally-funded health insurance, with the exception of emergency benefits, under the Medicaid and CHIP programs. Prior to this welfare reform legislation, immigrants were eligible for the same Medicaid benefits as U.S. citizens. This report provides national and State estimates of the number of pre-welfare reform, non-citizen Medicaid beneficiaries, and their cost to the program. Information for analyses came from the Medicaid Quality Control (QC) database from the first half of 1994, and was supplemented with data from the Social Security Administration (SSA) on Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participants. The report found that prior to welfare reform: (1) One in 13 Medicaid beneficiaries were non-citizen immigrants; and (2) PRWORA did not affect the majority of immigrants receiving Medicaid benefits in 1996, but will have a greater impact as the number of new immigrants increases. The report concludes that the new eligibility restrictions are likely to increase the number of immigrants who are uninsured, although many factors will determine how these numbers will change in the future. States may replace, either wholly or partially, the lost federally-funded health insurance with state-funded assistance. New immigration policies will affect the rate of immigration and the composition of new immigrants. Additionally, an increase in the number of immigrants seeking naturalization may, in part, be attributed to apprehension surrounding welfare reform. Once the immigrants are citizens, they will again be eligible for Medicaid benefits. The impact of this potential increase in Medicaid caseloads is unclear. The future costs of increasing the number of low-income immigrants without Medicaid also remains to be seen. (Final report 47 pages plus appendices.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: David Nielson

PHONE NUMBER: 202-690-6636

PIC ID: 6791

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Urban Institute Washington, D.C.
 

TITLE: Trends in the Well-Being of America's Children and Youth: 1998

ABSTRACT: This is the third edition of an annual report from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on trends in the well-being of America's children and youth. The report presents the most recent and reliable estimates on more than 90 indicators of well-being. It is intended to provide the policy community, the media, and all interested citizens with an accessible overview of data describing the condition of children in the U.S. The indicators have been organized into five broad areas: (1) population, family and neighborhood; (2) economic security; (3) health conditions and health care; (4) social development, behavioral health, and teen fertility; and (5) education and achievement. For each indicator, the report provides graphics to highlight key trends and important population subgroup differences, and tables to provide more detailed information for the interested user. These are accompanied by text that briefly describes the importance of each indicator, and highlights the most salient features of the data.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Human Services Policy

FEDERAL CONTACT: Matthew Stagner

PHONE NUMBER: 202-690-5653

PIC ID: 6170.2

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Child Trends, Inc. Washington, D.C.