Performance Improvement 1998. Administration for Children and Families

02/01/1998

Contents

National Study of Protective, Preventive, and Reunification Services Delivered to Children and Their Families

Self-Sufficiency Project Implementation Manual: Lessons Learned from Eight Years of Office of Community Services Demonstration Partnership Programs

Examination of Special Needs Adoption in New York State--Phase III Report: Subsidized Adoptions in New York State, 1989-1993

Child Maltreatment 1995: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System

Descriptive Study of the Head Start Health Component

Evaluation of Nine Comprehensive Community-Based Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs: Cross-Site Evaluation Report

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Community Coalition Acting for Positive Parenting

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Family Care Connection

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Community Coalition Acting for Positive Parenting

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of PARE (Physical Abuse and Neglect Reduction Effort)

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of North Lawndale Family Support Initiative

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Dorchester CARES

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Maine Families

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of I CARE

Responsible Fatherhood: An Overview and Conceptual Framework

Responsible Fatherhood: An Overview and Conceptual Framework

Arkansas Prenatal and Postnatal Paternity Acknowledgment Project

LEAP: Final Report on Ohio's Welfare Initiative to Improve School Attendance Among Teenage Parents- Ohio's Learning, Earning, and Parenting Program

First Progress Report on the Head Start Program Performance Measures

REPORT: National Study of Protective, Preventive, and Reunification Services Delivered to Children and Their Families

ABSTRACT: This study determined the number and percentage of children and families in the child welfare system receiving protective, preventive reunification, out-of-home care, and/or aftercare services. It also obtained national data on the number, types, and dynamics of the services provided. Case record abstracts were completed on a nationally-representative sample of 3,000 children and their families served by public child welfare agencies. A subsample was followed for a 9-month period. These findings were compared with findings from a previous study, the 1977 National Study of Social Services to Children and Their Families. The study found that (1) between 1977 and 1994, there was a dramatic decline in the number of children receiving child welfare services, reflecting the evolution of the child welfare system from a broad based social services system to one primarily serving abused and neglected children and their families; (2) the child welfare system has not evolved into an in-home family-based system from a foster care system, as had been envisioned by the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980; (3) foster care drift remains a problem, with more than one-third of the children in foster care remaining there for more than 18 months; (4) minority children, particularly African-American children, are more likely to be in foster care placement than to receive in-home services, even when they have the same characteristics and problems as white children; and (5) kinship care does not explain the dramatically longer stays in foster care for African-American and Hispanic children compared to white children. The final report for this project is also available from the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information at 1-800-FYI-3366.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Penelope L. Maza

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8172

PIC ID: 3874

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Westat, Incorporated, Rockville, MD

REPORT: Self-Sufficiency Project Implementation Manual: Lessons Learned from Eight Years of Office of Community Services Demonstration Partnership Programs

ABSTRACT: The Self-Sufficiency Project Implementation Manual is a synopsis of lessons drawn from an assessment of eight years of Office of Community Services Demonstration Partnership Program (DPP) projects. DPP projects were designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of various innovative services that promote self-sufficiency among low-income individuals and families who rely on or are at risk of relying on public assistance. DPP has concentrated on five issues in their projects: (1) case management, (2) micro-enterprise development, (3) minority male employment, (4) homelessness, and (5) youth at risk. The manual presents generic models for establishing effective community-based programs in these areas. All models are presented in the form of logic models in order to provide a consistent framework for understanding. The manual also presents material on evaluating such programs. Each section of the manual is organized into general lessons learned, followed by specific lessons learned regarding each of the five project types. The manual is designed for use by community action agencies, community-based organizations, and local community program planners who are interested in developing a self-sufficiency project. (Final report: 107 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Saul

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 401-9341

PIC ID: 4336.4

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: BHM International, Incorporated, Silver Spring, MD

REPORT: Examination of Special Needs Adoption in New York State--Phase III Report: Subsidized Adoptions in New York State, 1989-1993

ABSTRACT: Large urban states like New York accounted for two-thirds of the precipitous national growth in the number of children in foster care between 1986 and 1991. The growth of caseloads and the need for more concentrated permanency planning necessitates new and innovative data collection efforts related to special needs adoption. This project was initiated in order to pilot a statewide data collection system for special needs adoptions. Information was collected on characteristics of the adopted child and the adoptive family, procedural issues, and the exact nature and amount of subsidy payments provided to the adopted child. This information was collected for the entire population of children being placed in New York via both public and private agencies. The project resulted in five phase reports. This (Phase III) report contains a descriptive analysis of statistics on the number of children placed between 1989 and 1993 in New York State, the level of this support, and the nature of the children's special needs. The report finds that (1) 12,858 new adoption subsidies were approved in New York State during the study period; (2) 62 percent of children receiving an adoption subsidy in the State qualified because they were hard to place; (3) personality or behavioral problems were the most prevalent reason for a child's classification as handicapped; (4) about one-fourth of children qualified for a subsidy had physical handicaps or severe medical conditions; (5) more male than female children were adopted with a subsidy in New York State; and (6) about half of all special needs children are placed in adoptive homes headed by a single mother. See also PIC ID No. 4380. (Final report: 81 pages, plus appendices.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Cecelia Sudia

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8764

PIC ID: 4380.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

REPORT: Child Maltreatment 1995: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System

ABSTRACT: The Child Abuse and Neglect Data System collects data on child maltreatment from States, territories, and other reporting jurisdictions. This report, which presents data collected from reports of child maltreatment investigated by States in 1995, finds that (1) in 1995, more than 1 million children were identified as victims of abuse or neglect (a rate of 15 per 1,000 children); (2) about 80 percent of the perpetrators of child maltreatment were the parents of the victims, while another 10 percent were other relatives and about 2 percent were people in other caretaking roles; (3) 52 percent of victims suffered from neglect, about twice as many as were subjected to the next most frequent kind of maltreatment--physical abuse (25 percent); (3) about 13 percent of victims were sexually abused; (4) more than half of all victims were 7 years of age or younger, about 26 percent younger than 4 years old, and about 21 percent were teenagers; (5) the majority of victims of neglect and medical neglect were younger than 8 years old, while most victims of other forms of maltreatment were older than 8 years old; and (6) 45 States reported that 996 children were known by the child protection services (CPS) agency to have died as a result of abuse or neglect--most of these deaths were children 3 years of age or younger. The report also finds that (1) CPS agencies investigated nearly 2 million reports alleging maltreatment of about 3 million children (a rate of 43 per 1,000 children); (2) reports were received from professionals (53 percent), family members (19 percent), friends and neighbors (9 percent), and anonymous sources (19 percent); and (3) nationally, about 36 percent of investigations resulted in a disposition of either substantiated or indicated maltreatment, while 58 percent of allegations were not substantiated. The report is available on the Internet at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/cb/. See also PIC ID Nos. 5387-5387.3.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Gail E. Collins

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8087

PIC ID: 5387.4

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Incorporated, Rockville, MD

REPORT: Descriptive Study of the Head Start Health Component

ABSTRACT: This study provides a description of the Head Start health component, which encompasses medical, dental, nutritional, and mental health domains. It describes health screening, examination, referral, treatment, and followup procedures across the four health domains. It reviews the case records of 1,200 4-year-olds enrolled in a national sample of 40 randomly selected Head Start programs and interviews their parents regarding the child's health status and health service utilization patterns. It also describes Head Start programs' staffing patterns and staff training, utilization of community health resources, and barriers to the provision of health services through interviews with appropriate Head Start personnel. The final report was completed in November 1996.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: James Griffin

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8138

PIC ID: 5849

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CDM Group, Incorporated, Chevy Chase, MD

REPORT: Evaluation of Nine Comprehensive Community-Based Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs: Cross-Site Evaluation Report

ABSTRACT: This evaluation (1) designed and implemented a process and impact evaluation of nine comprehensive community-based child abuse and neglect prevention projects funded by the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN), (2) provided technical assistance to the nine projects in meeting the requirements of the evaluation, and (3) aided the programs in their efforts to design and implement their own internal program evaluations. The evaluation was conducted in three phases over a 3-year period. The nine projects examined had up to ten service components, many of which were different across the programs. Therefore, a series of individual experimental designs were developed for each service component. Process and impact data were collected across programs and through a series of studies conducted in each site. All grantees were aided in refining their evaluation and research plans. The report provides a context for understanding the experiences of the nine projects. A literature review, an examination of study methodology, the projects' implementation experiences, an accounting of the study findings, and policy recommendations are offered. The report finds that several program elements are vital to the success of the projects. These include (1) an emphasis on community involvement and ownership, (2) employing a positive approach, (3) starting on a small scale, and (4) implementing a strong evaluation and using it as a program management tool. The report recommends that NCCAN implement several strategies to enhance the success of these kinds of projects, including (1) focusing future grant programs on more narrowly defined target populations, (2) stressing the importance of community involvement, and (3) providing to grantees with a research framework and priorities delineating key research questions on child maltreatment and requiring them to implement appropriate process and outcome evaluation designs. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851.1-5851.9.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Families First in Fairfax

ABSTRACT: This report describes Families First in Fairfax, one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. These projects were intended to provide models of collaborative, community-based strategies for effectively preventing child maltreatment. Developed by the Fairfax County, Virginia Department of Human Development, the program addresses the prevention needs of a diverse and growing multi-ethnic population. Families First in Fairfax consisted of three major components (1) public awareness and community education, (2) early identification and intervention, and (3) crisis intervention. The report finds that (1) the program being operated in Fairfax County at the end of the grant period differed substantially from the one originally proposed--a number of child abuse prevention strategies attempted during the first 2 years were ultimately discontinued; (2) the greatest barrier to program implementation during the first 2 years was a lack of specificity on how to achieve the program's mission; (3) during the last 2 years, program development was dynamic and yielded many effective strategies that were made permanent at the end of the demonstration period; (4) the demonstration program fostered growth in parenting programs, family and early infant health care programs, neighborhood resource centers, and directories of services made available to ethnic minority populations; (5) the program also encouraged increased collaboration and information sharing between the agencies and organizations working in the area of child abuse and neglect prevention; and (6) the biggest problems during the 5-year demonstration period were frequent leadership changes and staff turnover. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851 and 5851.2-5951.9. (Final report: 19 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Community Coalition Acting for Positive Parenting

ABSTRACT: This report describes the Community Coalition Acting for Positive Parenting (CCAPP), one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect to develop community-based, collaborative models to effectively prevent child maltreatment. Located in North Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, CCAPP was developed by Temple University's Center for Social Policy and Community Development as a university-community collaboration to provide child abuse prevention interventions at the community level. The program attempted to stimulate and support a wide variety of prevention interventions in the community by providing small grants and technical assistance. The report finds that (1) CCAPP affected three different groups: the community, child abuse professionals, and the University, allowing members of each group to learn from members of other groups and fostering an expanded community cooperation; (2) CCAPP sparked the institutionalization of community-based efforts to support families and inform the community about its role in preventing child abuse; (3) the creation of a community-based planning and development council or community board through which key leaders can both receive and disseminate information is very important; (4) CCAPP shifted its attention away from child abuse and neglect to a more positive, family support approach by fostering Family Life Festivals, library programs, and parent-child activities, which reduced parental isolation; (5) using community-based providers as agents for prevention activities enabled the program to attract more of the target population; and (6) universities that have experience working with social issues facilitate program implementation and lend legitimacy to community-based efforts. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851-5851.1 and 5851.3-5851.9. (Final report: 19 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.2

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Family Care Connection

ABSTRACT: This report describes Family Care Connection (FCC), based in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN). Developed and administered by Community Health at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, the program provided family support incorporating neighborhood drop-in centers, neighborhood-based task forces, parenting classes and support groups, home visits, substance abuse counseling, outreach, a school-based program, and public awareness activities. FCC sought to replicate in several high-risk communities a preexisting program that used community-based parent education to improve parent-child relationships. FCC expanded services at an existing drop-in center and established four centers in three more at-risk communities. The centers provided services such as respite care, child development, recreation, education, and counseling. An evaluation of the program found that (1) 279 parents had graduated from the parenting classes between September 1989 and June 1991, and that these graduates reported that they would be less likely to use physical punishment with their children; (2) the rate of low-birthweight babies decreased after program implementation in two communities; and (3) FCC was successfully established as an institution in the communities through aggressive pursuit of funding and by using staff that were hired by and paid by "partner agencies." The report concludes that FCC achieved notable success in institutionalizing its services in the communities in which it established drop-in centers under the NCCAN grant. It carefully selected community agencies as partners, and established personal contacts and networking connections with agencies and organizations in its target communities. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851-5851.2 and 5851.4-5851.9. (Final report: 16 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.3

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Community Lifelines Program

ABSTRACT: This report describes the Community Lifelines Program (CLP), one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Developed by the Family Life Development Center of Cornell University in collaboration with the government and human service agencies of Chemung County, New York, the program implemented activities designed to alleviate community conditions that lead to isolation, poor self-image, and economic stress, thereby reducing some of the underlying causes of child abuse and neglect. CLP was responsible for several program initiatives in the city of Elmira and the rural Van Etten/Spencer school district, which included Parent Partner Programs (PPPs), parent support groups, activities encouraging better parent-child communication, and family support programs. The report describes the community, the grantee agency, the program design and changes over time, barriers to program implementation, and strategies used to overcome these barriers. It also describes the program's effects and efforts to institutionalize the various components of the CLP. The report finds that the Elmira PPP was very successful, as was the CLP in Van Etten/Spencer. In Elmira, the PPP fostered better relationships between schools and parents, between individual parents, and between parents and children. In Van Etten/Spencer, several initiatives were successful, including a program for parents of teenagers (Parent Lifelines), an after-school program, and a playgroup. However, several other initiatives had little impact or were initiated too late in the demonstration period to be measured. These included the Family Portraits component, the Family Connections Room, and Food Stamps Outreach. The public awareness campaign launched in conjunction with CLP was successful and useful, according to a reader survey. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851-5851.3 and 5851.5-5851.9. (Final report: 25 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.4

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of PARE (Physical Abuse and Neglect Reduction Effort)

ABSTRACT: This report describes the Physical Abuse and Neglect Reduction Effort (PARE), one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. This project was developed by the Exchange Club Center for the Prevention of Child Abuse (ESCAPE), located in Carolina, Puerto Rico. The report discusses the environmental factors and indicators of social disruption associated with increased risk for child abuse and neglect in Puerto Rico. It provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of PARE's program design and operations, as well as evaluation findings. The PARE program provided intervention strategies in an effort to stop the cycle of child abuse in the future, while preserving the family. PARE was designed to be family oriented and emphasized self-help and volunteer action. The demonstration model emphasized interventions directed toward the individual, the family, and the community, as well as cultural factors. The report describes several of these interventions, including (1) an interagency task force, (2) a public awareness campaign, (3) respite centers, (4) a life skills curriculum, (5) an educational curriculum for prenatal clinics, (6) a Parent Aid Program, and (7) a Parent Laboratory. The report finds that (1) the development and implementation of three respite centers pioneered new concepts and approaches to providing secondary prevention; (2) 702 volunteers provided support services and served as role models; (3) the program gained the support of the community, government officials, public and private agencies, the business community, and the media; and (4) the public awareness campaign was broadcast throughout Puerto Rico and reached a large segment of the population. The report concludes that PARE increased child abuse awareness in Puerto Rico, but that more work needs to be done before child abuse prevention becomes a priority for leaders and politicians on the island. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851-5851.4 and 5851.6-5851.9.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.5

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of North Lawndale Family Support Initiative

ABSTRACT: This report describes the North Lawndale Family Support Initiative (NLFSI), one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN). Developed by the Greater Chicago Council of the National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, the program tested the efficacy of a model that advocates comprehensive prevention strategies aimed at both the community and its residents. The model called for the provision and coordination of comprehensive prevention services, including community education, parent education, parent support groups, school-based prevention services for children, and therapeutic services for abused children and their families. The report finds that (1) the most successful components of the NLFSI were the advisory council, the community needs assessment, public awareness, and life skills training; (2) the least effective components were the parent education program, the parent support groups, and therapeutic care--this ineffectiveness was due to inadequate program design, local implementation difficulties, and the grantee's perception that NCCAN required more direct services; (3) the NLFSI benefitted from stable and credible staff, who had already established themselves in the community before the program's implementation; (4) staff possessed strong outreach skills which served them well in the public awareness campaign, but they lacked the skills and background needed to implement direct services; and (5) the NLFSI lacked a clearly defined or effectively developed relationship with its grantee agency and had difficulty in being acknowledged as a full-fledged member of the community due to its situation on the campus of a community college located at the edge of the target community. The report also discusses barriers to program implementation and efforts to institutionalize the program, and includes several recommendations in key areas. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851-5851.5 and 5851.7-5851.9.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.6

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Dorchester CARES

ABSTRACT: This report describes Dorchester CARES, one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN). Under NCCAN funding, Dorchester CARES was initially a collaborative project of the Massachusetts Committee for Children and Youth, Inc. and Federated Dorchester Neighborhood House; however, by the end of the demonstration period, the project included many other collaborators. The model was designed to demonstrate that through collaboration, advocacy, resource development, education, and services, a community can create opportunities for families to increase their social networks and become more independent and self-sustaining. The report finds that: (1) Dorchester CARES staff stressed that it was not an agency, or a program, but rather a collaborative comprised of member agencies and staff who thought of themselves as a process; (2) the project reflected an ecological approach that combined a psychiatric model and a sociological model (the first was directed toward a "sick parent" and stressed therapy and education, while the second was aimed toward the "sick society" and stressed educational and political strategies); (3) over the demonstration period, the program was able to improve family functioning to provide a more nurturing environment for children's development; (4) the program created opportunities for family members to become more independent and self-sustaining and for community members to work together to achieve common goals; (5) the CARES family support program worked by proactively encouraging social networking, increasing nurturing values and skills, and empowering parents to carry out their caregiving roles; and (6) the program was successfully duplicated in several other neighborhoods and was institutionalized in Dorchester. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851-5851.6 and 5851.8-5851.9. (Final report: 21 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.7

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of Maine Families

ABSTRACT: This report describes Project Maine Families, one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. The Maine Families project was the result of a collaboration between the urban Cumberland County Child Abuse and Neglect Council (CCCANC) and the rural Franklin County Children's Task Force (FCCTF); other local community, school, and service organizations joined the two county organizations to identify and address the needs of children and their families. CCCANC implemented a school family center, a media program, a public library discussion series, a teenage parent day care and support center, a drop-in laundry program, a parents' speaker and support group, and a parent education program in a low-income housing development. FCCTF implemented a summer reading program, a resource directory, a parent education program for Head Start-eligible families, parent cooperative support and education groups, and a parent mentoring and home visitation program. In both counties, the project sponsored community events to reduce the isolation of families and to encourage a sense of support and togetherness. The evaluation of the Maine Families project consisted primarily of a qualitative assessment of the reactions of program participants and leaders, finding that (1) the project was guided by an effort to structure interventions based upon what parents said they needed, rather than on what project staff or other agency staff believed they needed; (2) focus groups revealed that few parents believed that they were doing an effective parenting job and most felt isolated from support and in need of information and assistance; (3) the project emphasized involving business and industry in designing and implementing community programming; and (4) collaboration is enhanced by using a businesslike approach. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851-5851.7 and 5851.9. (Final report: 18 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.8

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Case Study of I CARE

ABSTRACT: This report describes the I CARE Project, one of nine demonstration projects funded by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. The project was developed by the Ohio Research Institute on Child Abuse and Prevention to model a prevention program in direct response to the needs and existing resources of the target community. The program implemented four interventions: (1) home health visitation for first-time parents and families with newborns, (2) parent education focused on child development and management of specific child behaviors, (3) a public awareness program in the target community, and (4) provision of support in obtaining basic necessities for families in need. I CARE distributed a series of educational Child Behavior Management Cards throughout the Columbus, Ohio area, as well as refrigerator magnets, local resource directories, and other resource and awareness materials throughout the target community. In addition, monthly family get-togethers were held for parents participating in the home visitation program in order to decrease their social isolation and to provide a forum for discussion and education. After the conclusion of the program, I CARE staff made several conclusions and recommendations, including that: (1) a prevention model containing all the components specified for this demonstration grant would be difficult, if not impossible, notwithstanding a budget of $200,000 per year; (2) although a community-based program cannot correct all the societal problems leading to child abuse and neglect, it should be aware of their effects; (3) an interdisciplinary task force from the community should be considered mandatory; and (4) the uncertainty of future funding is a major obstacle for demonstration or pilot programs. See also PIC ID Nos. 5851-5951.8. (Final report: 23 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Emily Cooke

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 205-8709

PIC ID: 5851.9

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: CSR, Incorporated, Washington, DC

REPORT: Responsible Fatherhood: An Overview and Conceptual Framework

ABSTRACT: A growing consensus holds that responsible fathering means establishing paternity, being present in the child's --even if divorced or unmarried, sharing economic support, and being personally involved in the child's life in collaboration with the mother. This report, co-sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, summarizes the research on factors that influence fathering and presents a systemic, contextual framework that highlights multiple interacting influences on the father-child relationship. A principal finding of the report is that fathering is influenced, even more than mothering, by contextual forces in the family and the community. A father in an adversarial relationship with the mother is at risk of becoming an irresponsible father, as is a father who lacks adequate employment and income. By the same token, responsible fathering can be fostered by positive changes in cultural, economic, institutional, and interpersonal influences. Thus, the report contends that fathering programs should involve a wide range of interventions. In particular, these programs should (1) involve the mother where feasible, and for unmarried fathers, the families of origin; (2) promote collaborative coparenting; (3) emphasize critical transitions, such as the birth of a child and divorce of the parents; (4) deal with employment, economic issues, and community systems; (5) promote father-to-father learning; and (6) promote the viability of committed and collaborative marriage. By developing a theoretical underpinning to guide empirical research, program development, and program evaluation, this project is intended to help inform policymakers about what is necessary to enable fathers to support and nurture a child.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Mark Fucello

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 401-5074

PIC ID: 5981

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

REPORT: Arkansas Prenatal and Postnatal Paternity Acknowledgment Project

ABSTRACT: In Arkansas, close to 1 in 3 births are to unmarried mothers. Prior to the establishment of the paternity acknowledgment project described in this report, half of the nonmarital birth certificates did not identify the fathers of these children. The Arkansas paternity acknowledgment project was multifaceted, ambitious in scope, and considerably changed over the life of the 3-year demonstration period. There were five basic models used in the project: (1) basic in-hospital paternity acknowledgment with a genetic testing option; (2) prenatal and multiple postnatal opportunities to acknowledge paternity; (3) interstate paternity acknowledgment transfer project (parents from one State traveled to another State, gave birth, and signed paternity acknowledgments in that State); (4) home visiting nurse program; and (5) alternative parental support program, which abates or reduces child support payments for young fathers who participate in opportunities to increase parental responsibility. The report finds that (1) IV-D (child support) staff identified mothers uncooperative in establishing paternity and surveyed them regarding their lack of cooperation: these mothers stated that they did not want to establish paternity because the child's father was not involved, that the father gave the mother money already, or that the mother did not know where the father was; (2) by the end of the project, 13,688 paternity acknowledgments had been received, and the ratio of paternity acknowledgments to unmarried births ranged from 48 percent in 1995 to 56 percent for the first three months of 1996; and (3) 38 percent of the acknowledgments were matched to children in the Arkansas child support data base, and 27 percent of these had closed by September 1996 (payments were received on 16 percent of matched cases). (Final report: 111 pages, plus appendix.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Child Support and Enforcement

FEDERAL CONTACT: David Arnaudo

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 401-5364

PIC ID: 6221

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: State of Arkansas, Division of Revenue, Little Rock, AR

REPORT: LEAP: Final Report on Ohio's Welfare Initiative to Improve School Attendance Among Teenage Parents--Ohio's Learning, Earning, and Parenting Program

ABSTRACT: Ohio's Learning, Earning, and Parenting (LEAP) program is a statewide initiative that uses financial incentives as a way to increase school enrollment and attendance among pregnant teenagers and custodial teen parents on welfare. The program, which began in 1989, requires these parents (mostly mothers) to stay in school and attend regularly, or, if they have dropped out, to return to school or to prepare for the General Educational Development (GED) test. During the period of this study, teens who met LEAP's requirements received increases to their welfare checks ($62 for school enrollment and an additional $62 each month they attended school regularly). Teens who did not meet program requirements had the same amount deducted from their welfare grant until they complied with program rules. This report is based on a study of 4,151 teens who were identified as eligible for LEAP during the program's second year of operation (August 1990 through September 1991). The report finds that (1) even the initial implementation of LEAP was a considerable achievement as an unprecedented statewide effort requiring new linkages between county welfare and education systems; (2) the program achieved smooth operations after the implementation of a sophisticated statewide public assistance computer system; (3) to a large degree, LEAP met its initial goals to significantly increase school enrollment and attendance for in-school teens and drop-outs, which were directly linked to the incentives and sanctions provided; (4) in general, the impacts on school completion and employment were more positive for teens who were still in school when they were identified as eligible for the program (initially-enrolled participants) than for drop-outs who returned to school; and (6) LEAP increased the employment rates for initially-enrolled teens and had positive impacts on their earnings during the first 2 years of the 4-year followup. (Final report 130 pages plus appendices.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Nancye Campbell

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 401-6659

PIC ID: 6668

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, NY

REPORT: First Progress Report on the Head Start Program Performance Measures

ABSTRACT: The Head Start program, established in 1965, has served almost 14 million preschool children. In 1995, the program joined with other Federal programs in developing performance measures to promote accountability through the assessment of program quality and outcomes. This report is the first program assessment using these performance measures. It describes the development of the performance measures, noting that they focus on outcomes rather than on processes. In other words, the outcomes to be measured concern how well the children in the program do, rather than on such things as the credentials of teachers. The Head Start program also has in place a series of Program Performance Standards, which define program activities, while the Program Performance Measures define program results. The report describes the background of the Program Performance Measures development, including the conceptual model used and data sources. Finally, the report includes an account of how the Head Start program will gather data for the measures and establish a "feedback loop" for policy and resource decisions. The report concludes that the performance measures will provide a snapshot of Head Start's program performance at a given point in time and will allow the program to compare its performance to the past. At the national level, it will allow the program to determine how well it is doing through the production of periodic national Head Start progress reports. This first report provides a benchmark against which future performance can be measured and furnishes program accountability information to be used in appropriations decisions. (Final report: 31 pages, plus appendices.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth, and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: John Connigan

PHONE NUMBER: (202) 401-5916

PIC ID: 6693

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Caliber Associates, Fairfax, VA

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