Performance Improvement 1996. Administration for Children and Families

02/01/1996

Contents

Child Access Demonstration Projects: Final Wave I Report

Child Maltreatment 1993: Reports From the States to the National Center on Child Abuse

Children on Hold: Improving the Response to Children Whose Parents Are Arrested and Incarcerated

Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Project Design and Evaluation Guidebook (Third Revised Edition)

Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Self-Sufficiency Project Implementation Manual

Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From 1990--Homeless and Youth at Risk

Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From FY 1991--Case Management/Family Development

Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From FY 1991--Micro-Business and Self-Employment

Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings from FY 1991--Minority Males

Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From FY 1991--Youth at Risk

Evaluation of the Key States Initiative

Foster Youth Mentors

Increasing Participation in Work and Work-Related Activities: Lessons From Five State Welfare Reform Demonstration Projects (Two Volumes)

Low-Income Energy Assistance Program: Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

Matching Opportunities to Obligations: Lessons for Child Support Reform From the Parents' Fair Share Pilot Phase

Outcomes of Permanency Planning for 1,165 Foster Children

Selected Annotated Bibliography on Youth and Gang Violence Prevention, Community Team Organizing and Training, and Cultural Awareness Curriculums

Something Old, Something New: A Case Study of the Post-Employment Services Demonstration in Oregon

Strengthening Families and Neighborhoods: A Community-Centered Approach--Final Report on the Iowa Patch Project

Study of the Impact on Service Delivery of Family Substance Abuse

Update From the Multistate Foster Care Data Archive: Foster Care Dynamics 1983-93

Youth With Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors (Three Volumes)

TITLE: Child Access Demonstration Projects: Final Wave I Report

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 001

ABSTRACT: Since the passage of the 1984 Child Support Enforcement amendments and the 1988 Family Support Act, courts and child support agencies have vastly increased their efforts to establish a child's paternity and establish and enforce child support orders. However, many noncustodial parents' groups have complained that there has not been a parallel increase in enforcement of their rights to parental access. This report presents information from child access demonstration projects in Florida, Idaho, and Indiana that began in October 1990 (wave I). These projects were designed to determine whether mediation services for child access problems would reduce parent conflict; reduce interference with visitation rights; and encourage full, voluntary compliance with child support obligations. The report finds that (1) problems with parental access to children arise frequently (12 to 24 percent in Florida and Idaho), primarily in divorce cases; (2) access problems are more complex than visitation denial; (3) disagreements about visitation seem to increase over time; (4) mediation produced an agreement between parents in about two-thirds of cases, but this conclusion is complicated by the fact that a high proportion of cases assigned to mediation were never attended; and (5) there is no way to tell how long mediated agreements between parents might last. The project was extended through June 1996. (Final report 239 pages, plus appendixes.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Child Support Enforcement

FEDERAL CONTACT: David Arnaudo

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-5364

PIC ID: 5972

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Policy Studies, Inc., Denver, CO; Center for Policy Research, Denver, CO

TITLE: Child Maltreatment 1993: Reports From the States to the National Center on Child Abuse

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 002

ABSTRACT: The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) collects data on child maltreatment reported from States, territories, and other jurisdictions. This study presents data collected from reports of child maltreatment investigated by States in 1993. NCANDS compiles aggregate data from States in its Summary Data Component (SDC) and also contains case-level data that allow more detailed analyses in its Detailed Case Data Component (DCDC). Pilot testing of the DCDC data collection instrument has been completed, and the DCDC is being phased in nationally. An analysis of the data from the first 10 participating States was to be available in late 1995. The study finds that (1) almost 2 million reports of child abuse and neglect were received by child protective service agencies and referred for investigation in 1993; (2) 1993 is the first year since 1976 in which the rate of reported child abuse and neglect cases has not increased; (3) 53 percent of all reports come from professionals, including educators, law enforcement and justice officials, medical professionals, social service professionals, and child care providers; (4) 18 percent of all reports come from family members; (5) 38 percent of the 1.6 million investigations of alleged abuse or neglect resulted in a disposition of substantiated or indicated child abuse; 53 percent were not substantiated or indicated child abuse; and (6) neglect is the most common type of maltreatment, followed by physical, sexual, medical, and emotional abuse.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Gail Collins

PHONE NUMBER: 202/205-8087

PIC ID: 5387.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Bowers and Associates, Reston, VA; American Humane Association, Englewood, CO

TITLE: Children on Hold: Improving the Response to Children Whose Parents Are Arrested and Incarcerated

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 003

ABSTRACT: An estimated 1.5 million children in the United States have an incarcerated parent. As a result of "get tough on crime" policies, the number of incarcerated women has tripled. It is estimated that, on any given day, 167,000 children have mothers in prisons and jails. This report explores what communities are doing nationwide to meet the needs of children whose caretakers are arrested or incarcerated. The report finds that the typical incarcerated woman is likely to be young, single, unemployed, and African-American or Hispanic, with limited education, job skills, and income; a history of drug abuse; and two to three young children. The report uses national telephone surveys of 500 law enforcement, child welfare, and corrections officials in 100 counties. It examines survey responses from patrol officers, narcotics officers, child protective services, foster care parents, and corrections staff. It reports on site visits to communities with exemplary responses to children whose parents are arrested: Galveston, Texas; Mobile, Alabama; San Antonio, Texas; and St. Louis, Missouri. Site visits to exemplary programs for children whose parents are incarcerated are reported on for Albany, New York; Bethel Bible Village, Tennessee; San Antonio, Texas; and San Francisco, California. (Final report 288 pages, plus appendixes.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Cecelia Sudia

PHONE NUMBER: 202/205-8764

PIC ID: 5853

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: American Bar Association, Center on Children and the Law, Chicago, IL

TITLE: Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Project Design and Evaluation Guidebook (Third Revised Edition)

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 004

ABSTRACT: The Demonstration Partnership program (DPP) represents the first formal research and development component within the Community Service Block Grant. Federal guidelines require that the projects funded under DPP include a strong third-party evaluation component to determine whether they are worthy of replication. The objectives of the program are to (1) stimulate community action agencies to develop new approaches that provide for greater self-sufficiency among the poor; (2) test and evaluate new approaches; (3) disseminate project results and evaluation findings; and (4) strengthen the ability of eligible entities to integrate, coordinate, and redirect activities that promote maximum self-sufficiency among the poor. DPP grants are made to innovative projects that can be coordinated with a grantee's ongoing program. The projects can also combine resources, including partnerships with other community agencies. This guidebook is intended to help grant applicants and grantees understand the role of evaluation in the grants process, in selecting and working with a third-party evaluator, and in preparing the required evaluation reports. See also the series under PIC ID 4336, 6054, 6055, 6056, 6057, and 6058. (Final report variously paginated, plus appendixes.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Saul

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9341

PIC ID: 4336.4

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: BHM International, Inc., Silver Spring, MD

TITLE: Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Self-Sufficiency Project Implementation Manual

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 005

ABSTRACT: "The Self-Sufficiency Project Implementation Manual" is a synopsis of lessons drawn from 8 years of DPP projects. DPP projects were designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of innovative services that promote self-sufficiency among low-income individuals and families who rely on or are at risk of relying on public assistance. DPP has concentrated on five issues in its projects: (1) case management; (2) micro-enterprise development; (3) minority male employment; (4) homelessness; and (5) youth at risk. The implementation manual presents generic models for establishing effective community-based programs in these areas and offers ideas on evaluating such programs. All models are presented in the form of logic models for consistency. Each section of the manual is organized into general lessons and specific lessons learned regarding each of the five project types. The manual is designed for use by community action agencies, community-based organizations, and local community program planners who are interested in developing a self-sufficiency project.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Saul

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9341

PIC ID: 4336.3

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: BHM International, Inc., Silver Spring, MD

TITLE: Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From 1990: Homeless and Youth at Risk

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 006

ABSTRACT: This report presents the findings from three grants that focused on homeless adults and youth at risk. Two of the projects addressed the needs of homeless adults, while one concentrated on homeless youths. The projects focused on adults were directed toward very different populations. The Tacoma, Washington program worked with adult males who, while homeless, were generally free from most problems that prevent reintegration into the workplace. The project had considerable success in collecting data and in moving clients to the workforce. At follow-up, 80 percent of the case-managed group had jobs. About one-third of these jobs included benefits, and 50 percent were permanent. Half of the clients who were homeless at the beginning of the project were not at follow-up. Unlike the Tacoma project, the Duluth, Minnesota project, which targeted residents of low-income housing, did not exclude residents with special problems, such as a history of mental illness, drug abuse, or criminal involvement. This project was less successful in collecting data and in integrating clients into the workforce. However, participants achieved significantly higher incomes than the control group, although their wages were still low. The project targeted to youth was located in Portland, Oregon. It focused on helping homeless youth at risk find a more stable environment. Many of the youths were using illicit drugs, had criminal histories or mental problems, and came from violent homes. Stabilizing the youths and meeting their emergency needs were the first priorities of the project. The project had problems tracking clients, since many of the youths did not follow up with counselors. Many did not return to the program out of fear that their parents might be contacted. As a consequence, the outcome analysis was difficult to develop. Despite these difficulties, some conclusions were reached, such as: (1) 75 percent of the youths who completed the program have a stable residence unconnected to street life; and (2) 83 percent of those who completed the program are employed, are participating in an educational or vocational training program, or are serving in the Armed Forces. See also the series under PIC ID 4336, 6054, 6055, 6056, 6057, and 6058. (Final report variously paginated.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Saul

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9341

PIC ID: 6056.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: BHM International, Inc., Silver Spring, MD

TITLE: Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From FY 1991--Case Management/Family Development

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 007

ABSTRACT: This report describes two efforts designed to increase the self-sufficiency of public assistance recipients through case management. The two DPPs were located in DuPage, Illinois, and Stevens Point, Wisconsin. In each project several agencies cooperated to provide coordinated, integrated, and appropriate services to individuals or families receiving public assistance. A case manager coordinated the care received by clients. The target population in DuPage was single-parent families; and in Stevens Point the target population was families whose total income was below 125 percent of the poverty level. Both projects were intended to increase the economic self-sufficiency of clients. The DuPage project included 83 participants in its experimental group. Despite numerous attempts to engage them, about 45 percent of the treatment group never presented themselves for service, never followed up, or were unable to participate because of mental health problems. The Stevens Point program focused on helping working poor families pursue home ownership. Three groups were compared: a control group, a comparison group of participants in a low-income buyers group, and a target group who were enrolled in the home-buyers group and receiving integrated case-management services. See also the series under PIC ID 4336, 6054, 6055, 6056, 6057, and 6058.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Saul

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9341

PIC ID: 6054.2

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: BHM International, Inc., Silver Spring, MD

TITLE: Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From FY 1991--Micro-Business and Self-Employment

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 008

ABSTRACT: This report presents the results of three programs designed to help low-income individuals start their own business or pursue self-employment to achieve economic self-sufficiency. Two of the programs, one located in Ukiah, California, and one on Wetumpka, Alabama, were relatively close to major urban centers. The third program in Bozeman, Montana, by contrast, was located in one of the more sparsely populated areas of the United States. The populations served by the three programs were quite dissimilar: Ukiah targeted only women; Bozeman targeted only Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and food stamp recipients; and Wetumpka targeted a blue-collar and semirural population of mixed gender and race. The Ukiah program was a great success, forcing some participants to wait several weeks before receiving services. Unfortunately, some participants that could not be served immediately did not return to the program when space became available. The Bozeman project assisted low-income individuals in obtaining small business loans. By the end of the project, 39 loans had been awarded to 37 recipients. Additionally, the program awarded loans to 12 Native Americans, or 86 percent of the goal. All programs were relatively successful and had positive impacts on their communities. See also the series under PIC ID 4336, 6054, 6055, 6056, 6057, and 6058. (Final report variously paginated.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Saul

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9341

PIC ID: 6055.2

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: BHM International, Inc., Silver Spring, MD

TITLE: Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From FY 1991--Minority Males

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 009

ABSTRACT: This report presents the results of three DPPs focused on minority males. Two of the projects, located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Boston, Massachusetts, organized their approaches around a combination of a job club and case management. The third project, located in Lexington, Kentucky, used a combination of mentoring and case-management support. The important differences between the programs lay in their target audiences. The Milwaukee and Lexington projects focused almost exclusively on African-Americans, while the Boston project expanded this focus to include Hispanics. Participants' ages ranged from 14 to 34 years; the Lexington project focused on the younger end of the spectrum, the Boston project on the middle, and the Milwaukee program on the older group. The Milwaukee program concentrated on issues of racial bias in education and employment as a means to reduce minority male unemployment. Individual training and education was also used to lessen the negative effects of family and community dysfunction. In Lexington, problems included a lack of suitable mentors. Only 10 percent of 300 possible mentors completed the application, and this number was further reduced after a check of police records. However, the program demonstrated that mentors and participants must be matched one-to-one. The Boston program achieved a 58 percent completion rate. See also the series under PIC ID 4336, 6054, 6055, 6056, 6057, and 6058.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Saul

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9341

PIC ID: 6058

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: BHM International, Inc., Silver Spring, MD

TITLE: Demonstration Partnership Program Projects: Summary of Final Evaluation Findings From FY 1991--Youth at Risk

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 010

ABSTRACT: This report presents the findings from four types of youth-at-risk projects funded under DPP: school-based, teen parents, employment training, and homeless youth. Regardless of the approach taken, all products had some core service components in common, including case management, social support services, educational services, and employment training. Four projects were school based. The Yakima, Washington, program targeted low-income high school youth to increase their educational success and wage rates and to reduce their reliance on public assistance. The Morristown, Tennessee, program provided school-based interventions to 148 preteen girls to reduce adolescent pregnancy rates. The Greenfield, Massachusetts, program provided case-management services, as well as nontraditional interventions (cooperative games, outdoor challenge activities). The Everett, Washington, program helped teenage mothers increase their education and job readiness. Two projects focused on employment training (Tacoma, Washington, and Austin, Texas). The Tacoma program served JTPA youths aged 17 to 21 at risk of gang or drug involvement or dropping out of school and eligible for Job Training Partnership Act services. The second project was intended to increase the potential for self-sufficiency and to strengthen service linkages. See also the series under PIC ID 4336, 6054, 6055, 6056, 6057, and 6058. (Final report variously paginated.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Richard Saul

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9341

PIC ID: 6057.2

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: BHM International, Inc., Silver Spring, MD

TITLE: Evaluation of the Key States Initiative

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 011

ABSTRACT: After passage of the Refugee Act of 1980, it became apparent that a large percentage of refugee families were remaining in welfare programs for extended periods of time. In response, the Office of Refugee Resettlement implemented the Key States Initiative (KSI) in fiscal 1987. The initiative was intended to increase employment among the refugee community and reduce dependence on welfare. Eight States emerged with high welfare dependency characteristics, and of these States, five chose to participate in this new program: Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Wisconsin. For each State, the report provides information on program design features, program participant characteristics, program outcomes, and lessons learned. The report also discusses the conclusions that can be drawn from a composite view of KSI program principles. The report finds that (1) programs that emphasize self-sufficiency goals, such as welfare termination, are more successful than those focusing only on job placement; (2) employment-related services provided to all potential wage earners in the family increased the odds that the family would leave the welfare rolls; (3) results-oriented vocational training programs worked better when they obtained employer commitments to training, program design, teaching resources, and job placement; and (4) clients are more cooperative with staff who have cultural backgrounds similar to their own.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Refugee Resettlement

FEDERAL CONTACT: Loren Bussert

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-5364

PIC ID: 5959

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Office of Refugee Resettlement, Washington, DC

TITLE: Foster Youth Mentors

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 012

ABSTRACT: The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign School of Social Work examined the factors characteristic of successful relationships between foster youths and older citizen mentors. The program compared 250 successful mentor/foster youth matches with 250 unsuccessful matches. Data focused on the characteristics of the mentors, the foster youths, and the mentoring program. The study also includes evaluations of each match from both participants. Study samples were taken from programs that offer mentoring as part of their service delivery. Programs include The Peoria Children's Home Association (Illinois); Covenant House Rites of Passage (New York); Judge Baker Children's Center; Fairfax County Mentor Program (Virginia); and various mentoring programs from Montana, New Hampshire, Alabama, and Kentucky. Project findings were disseminated to independent living programs throughout the United States in order to facilitate the use of mentors in efforts to transition older youths from foster care.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Cecelia Sudia

PHONE NUMBER: 202/205-8764

PIC ID: 4388

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: University of Illinois, School of Social Work, Urbana, IL

TITLE: Increasing Participation in Work and Work-Related Activities: Lessons From Five State Welfare Reform Demonstration Projects (Two Volumes)

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 013

ABSTRACT: This study uses data from State and local officials, case record reviews, and management reports to examine key implementation and operational issues in five States currently conducting welfare reform demonstration projects: Colorado, Iowa, Michigan, Utah, and Vermont. Reforms in these five States emphasize strategies designed to increase participation in work and work-related activities. Specifically, the report looks at (1) the strategies States use to increase participation in the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) training program (or similar programs); (2) the role of child care in increasing program participation; (3) the extent to which the culture of welfare offices has changed from one of check issuance to one of finding employment for recipients; and (4) the early lessons to be drawn from the experiences of these States. The report finds that States use many strategies to increase participation, including (1) reducing exemptions and serving more participants; (2) redefining participation to include unsubsidized employment and activities, such as substance abuse and mental health counseling and parenting classes; and (3) increasing penalties for nonparticipation. All five States budgeted for additional expenditures for staff and child care. All States reported that it is extremely difficult to change the culture of welfare offices. Volume 2 presents a site visit summary for each State. (Final report: volume 1, 96 pages; volume 2, 174 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Peter G. Germanis

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9316

PIC ID: 5815

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Urban Institute, Washington, DC

TITLE: Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program: Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 014

ABSTRACT: This report examines how States used funding they received under the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), describes trends in home energy consumption, reviews demographic data on LIHEAP beneficiaries, and assesses State compliance with the LIHEAP legislation for fiscal 1993. During that year, States spent $1.525 billion from LIHEAP, 86 percent of which came from Federal net allotments. States used the funds to provide heating and cooling assistance, energy crisis intervention or assistance, low-cost home weatherization, or other energy-related home repairs. The report finds that (1) 32 percent of home energy is used for space heating or cooling; (2) low-income households are more likely to heat with fuel oil, kerosene, or liquified petroleum gas and are less likely to heat with electricity; (3) low-income households consume less energy than other households (about 10 percent less for heating, 32 percent less for cooling, 17 percent less for appliances, and 5 percent less for water heating); (4) although these households consume less energy, a greater percentage of their annual income is spent on energy needs; (5) about 20 percent of those households eligible for LIHEAP received assistance in 1993 (they were among the poorest of all eligible households); and (6) States generally comply with requirements for setting benefit levels and legibility. See also PIC ID 4638. (Final report 37 pages, plus appendixes.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Community Services

FEDERAL CONTACT: Donald Sykes

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-9333

PIC ID: 4638.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Office of Community Services, Division of Energy Assistance, Washington, DC

TITLE: Matching Opportunities to Obligations: Lessons for Child Support Reform From the Parents' Fair Share Pilot Phase

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 015

ABSTRACT: The Parents' Fair Share (PFS) demonstration program requires that the noncustodial parents of children on welfare participate in employment related and other services when they are unemployed and unable to meet child support obligations. This study evaluates the operational feasibility of the PFS approach, ascertains whether a full-scale evaluation is warranted, and studies the target population. This effort studied 4,000 noncustodial parents in nine States who were not able to meet their child support obligations. Baseline data from enrollment forms, management information data, child support payment records, child support orders, site visits, peer support feedback forms, and participant and staff interviews were used to evaluate the pilot phase. The report finds that (1) the PFS program appears to be operationally feasible and shows enough promise to warrant a full-scale evaluation of its impacts and cost-effectiveness; (2) the program shows most ability to effect changes in individuals in poor support groups with a set curriculum; (3) cases received attention that were neglected prior to PFS; (4) employment and training systems were more difficult to change because of institutional barriers and limitations in program design choices, but the number of options in this area increased over time; and (5) many PFS parents appeared to be living in poverty, but most saw their children regularly and wished to support them. See also PIC ID 5952.1.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Child Support Enforcement

FEDERAL CONTACT: Mark Fucello

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-4538

PIC ID: 5952

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, NY

TITLE: Outcomes of Permanency Planning for 1,165 Foster Children

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 016

ABSTRACT: This report presents the findings of a study of 1,165 children in foster care. It examines the distribution of the children in four permanency planning (PP) exit categories after up to 18 months in care, and any changes in the child's PP status within 12 months of leaving the foster family. The report gives information on the demographic characteristics of the children, the reasons for their removal from the family, and characteristics of their stays in foster care. The report finds that many significant differences among children in the two study sites (San Diego County, California, and Pierce County, Washington) are explained in part by differences in child and family characteristics, but also by differences in the service systems in the sites. Pierce County's system has greater judicial system involvement, greater use of voluntary placements, and administrative rather than court reviews. The report also finds that the over-representation of minority children calls for an ethnicity-sensitive practice in child welfare systems. Furthermore, the large number of children with mental health, physical health, and behavioral problems in the study population reveals the need for appropriate services for this population. The report also finds that (1) two-thirds of children in both sites were reunited with their families; (2) adoptions were more frequent in Pierce County than in San Diego County, while long-term foster care was more frequent in the latter site; and (3) guardianship was used sparingly in both sites.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Cecelia Sudia

PHONE NUMBER: 202/205-8764

PIC ID: 5874

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: San Diego State University, Child and Family Research Group, San Diego, CA; Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, NY

TITLE: Selected Annotated Bibliography on Youth and Gang Violence Prevention, Community Team Organizing and Training, and Cultural Awareness Curriculums

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 017

ABSTRACT: This report is intended as a resource for youth-serving organizations, as well as individuals, researchers, and policymakers concerned with youth issues. This annotated bibliography provides brief summaries of materials ranging from reports and monographs to curriculums, training manuals, articles, and other literature and products. The entries in the bibliography were selected in a search of local and national print and electronic libraries and databases. Items were selected, annotated, and organized in the following general sections: (1) youth violence/gang violence; (2) youth violence prevention programs; (3) youth violence, gang, and drug prevention curriculums; (4) interpersonal skills training; (5) peer mediation; (6) multicultural awareness curriculums and cultural sensitivity training; (7) immigrants; (8) team organizing; (9) community collaboration; (10) interagency cooperation and partnerships; (11) community empowerment; and (12) training methodologies and strategies. Author, subject, geographic area, organization, project, and center indexes are provided. See also PIC ID 5875 and 5875.1. (Final report, 172 pages.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Terry Lewis

PHONE NUMBER: 202/205-8102

PIC ID: 5875.2

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Development Services Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD

TITLE: Something Old, Something New: A Case Study of the Post-Employment Services Demonstration in Oregon

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 018

ABSTRACT: The Federal Post-Employment Services Demonstration (PESD) was initiated in response to indications that many people who leave welfare for work lose their jobs fairly quickly and return to the welfare rolls. The demonstration is intended to help those who become employed keep their jobs, to help those who lose their jobs return to work quickly, and to reduce the amount of time families receive Aid to Family with Dependent Children (AFDC). PESD operates in Riverside, California; Chicago, Illinois; Portland, Oregon; and San Antonio, Texas. This report provides an indepth look at the program's operations in Oregon, gives the background for PESD and contrasts it with programs such as JOBS, which focuses on preemployment services. It describes the AFDC/JOBS program in Oregon and the State's postemployment initiative, the JOBS Employment Retention Initiative (JERI). The report then describes early patterns of job loss and reemployment in JERI, finding that job turnover is significant for participants (61 percent lost their first jobs during the first year of the demonstration). However, participants who lose their jobs return to work fairly quickly. The report describes the structure of the JERI program and makes general recommendations about how States might move from a preemployment services model to a post-employment services model. (Final report 48 pages, plus appendixes.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Nancye Campbell

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-5760

PIC ID: 6002

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Project Match, Erikson Institute, Chicago, IL

TITLE: Strengthening Families and Neighborhoods: A Community-Centered Approach--Final Report on the Iowa Patch Project

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 019

ABSTRACT: The Iowa Patch project, modeled on the British patch system of community-centered service delivery, was an innovative method of testing services improvement in a distressed urban neighborhood in Linn County, Iowa. The project attempted to overcome categorical barriers that prevent the pooling and use of informal and formal resources needed for flexible social services. The project ran in tandem with, and was supported by the Linn County Decategorization project, an Iowa initiative merging child welfare funding streams and involving the community in comprehensive services planning. The project showed that, overall, services were integrated and improved using the patch model. The project overcame normal turfism to successfully collocate an interagency team of human services workers; it successfully devolved responsibility for service delivery to the team and to line workers on the team; and it shifted the workers' practice from a deficit and crisis orientation to one that is proactive, preventive, and holistic. Services were more accessible and workers were more approachable and were able to develop informal relationships with consumers and local helping networks. Workers also did more in-home work with consumers. The Patch project has developed well beyond the level of a demonstration program and has been integrated with other agencies in Linn County's Family Research Center program. (Final report 148 pages, plus appendix.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: James Dolson

PHONE NUMBER: 202/401-0133

PIC ID: 5977

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

TITLE: Study of the Impact on Service Delivery of Family Substance Abuse

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 020

ABSTRACT: This report was originally intended to provide the Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) with information on the incidence of family drug abuse, and the effects of this abuse on ACYF programs. The comprehensive survey and study first planned was not approved by the Office of Management and Budget. Therefore, the scope of the study was reduced to include a literature review of relevant research from 1986 through 1994 and intensive case studies of the effects of family alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse on ACYF-funded programs. The literature review and site visits show that (1) Child Protective Services (CPS) are the ACYF programs most seriously negatively affected by family AOD abuse, followed by foster care, Head Start and other early childhood education programs, runaway and homeless youth (RHY) programs, and adoption services; (2) front-line staff in most ACYF-funded programs are ill-equipped and poorly trained for dealing with substance-abusing families; (3) ACYF-funded programs that effectively intervene in cases of family AOD abuse are significantly hampered by the lack of appropriate AOD treatment outlets; and (4) family AOD abuse has resulted in new challenges to all ACYF-funded programs in meeting their mandated functions, including accelerated termination of parental rights policies, postadoption and foster placement support programs, and modification of the Head Start program to address the needs of nonparental caretakers. (Final report 33 pages, plus appendixes.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: James Dolson

PHONE NUMBER: 202/260-6165

PIC ID: 4399

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Cygnus Corporation, Inc., Washington, DC

TITLE: Update From the Multistate Foster Care Data Archive: Foster Care Dynamics 1983-93

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 021

ABSTRACT: The Multistate Foster Care Data Archive contains foster care career histories for all children who have been in State-supervised substitute-care living arrangements. The data for the archive are extracted directly from the administrative data systems operated by each State's child welfare agency. The information is comprehensive and longitudinal at the individual level. Five States participated in the original archive: California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Texas. These States provide services to almost one-half of the total child substitute-care population in the United States. This report covers 1983-93, updating a 1994 report examining foster care dynamics between 1983 and 1992. The report is descriptive and is not a policy analysis. The report finds that (1) the five States described here have different levels of child care placement activity; (2) the trend in each of the States has been one of significant growth in the numbers of children receiving State-supported care; (3) admissions have been far greater than discharges, and most episodes of rapid caseload change follow a shift in admission levels; (4) most child care placement activity was concentrated in major urban centers; (5) much of the recent growth in foster care has involved the placement of children with relatives, while the number of children placed in institutional and group care settings has remained stable; and (6) infants and young children are the fastest growing age groups in the foster care population.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: Penelope L. Maza

PHONE NUMBER: 202/205-8172

PIC ID: 5885.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of Chicago, Chicago IL

TITLE: Youth With Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors (Three Volumes)

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 022

ABSTRACT: This report is the first national study of substance use, suicide attempts, and other at-risk behaviors among youth with runaway, throwaway, or homeless experience. Information comes from four sources: youths in shelters, youths on the street, youths in households, and directors of youth shelters. The survey of youths and youth shelter directors shows that (1) these youths are exposed to high-risk environments before as well as after they leave home; (2) about half of the youths classified as runaways could also be considered throwaways by their families; (3) these youths are much more likely than youths in general to engage in problem behaviors, including substance abuse, suicide attempts, unsafe sexual behavior, and criminal activity; (4) the youths from families who use drugs are particularly likely to engage in high-risk behaviors; (5) a high proportion of these youths spend time in institutions such as foster homes, psychiatric hospitals, and juvenile justice facilities; and (6) these youths are more likely to engage in many problem behaviors after leaving home than before, perhaps because doing so is a means of survival. The report recommends improvements in services for youths with these experiences. It notes that services must address all needs, from primary prevention to intervention and treatment. Furthermore, services must be community based, accessible, and comprehensive. (Final report three volumes variously paginated, plus appendixes.)

AGENCY SPONSOR: Administration on Children, Youth and Families

FEDERAL CONTACT: James Griffin, Ph.D.

PHONE NUMBER: 202/205-8138

PIC ID: 3871

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC