Performance Improvement 1995. National Institutes of Health

02/01/1995

Listing of Abstract Titles

Adverse Events Associated With Childhood Vaccines--Evidence Bearing on Causality

Meeting the Nation's Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists

Evaluating the Effects of School-Based Intervention Programs To Prevent Teenager Drug Use and Abuse

Evaluation of NIH-Funded Condom Research Phase I: Evaluability Assessment

Indoor Allergens--Assessing and Controlling Adverse Health Effects

Outreach/Risk Reduction Strategies for Changing HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among Injection Drug Users

Study To Assess the Current and Future Demand for Bone Marrow and the Impact on Size of the National Marrow Donor Registry

Survey of the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Physicians Related to Blood Use, Transfusion, and Donation

TITLE: Adverse Events Associated With Childhood Vaccines--Evidence Bearing on Causality

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 042

ABSTRACT: This study entailed a broad review of all relevant medical and scientific literature on the potentially serious risks associated with currently licensed childhood vaccines. This study was mandated by Congress under Section 313 of Public Law 99-660 to yield essential information that would help the Public Health Service draft recommendations on the use of certain mandated childhood vaccines and appropriate compensation for adverse reactions. The project was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the National Vaccine Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Health Resources and Services Administration. The final report is a book, Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines--Evidence Bearing on Causality, published by the National Academy Press in 1993. It summarizes the relevant input from interested organizations and individuals and describes the nature and extent of the relationship, if any, between the specified adverse events and the vaccines or vaccine components. In addition, the book describes the available data on the circumstances under which administration of these vaccines increases risks of serious or chronic adverse events and on the definition of any known risk groups for these adverse events.

FEDERAL CONTACT OFFICE: Division of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, NIAID

PERSON: Regina Rabinovich, M.D.

PHONE NUMBER: 301/496-5893

PIC NUMBER: 4198.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC

P.I.: Sylvia Cunningham

TITLE: Meeting the Nation's Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 043

ABSTRACT: This report examines the Nation's future need for biomedical and behavioral research scientists and the role the National Research Service Awards (NRSA) program can play in meeting them. The report is based on three activities: (1) a panel on estimation procedures was established to provide numerical analysis of educational and employment prospects and of national needs for biomedical and behavioral research personnel; (2) a public hearing was held to solicit the views of a broad constituency associated with NRSA programs; and (3) committee meetings were held to discuss and debate information and recommendations. The committee finds that the NRSA program, although small, is influential and prestigious. It is powerful in its ability to change research emphases and to attract the highest quality individuals to research careers. Furthermore, initiatives introduced through NRSA can have a powerful impact on new research emphases or constituencies. The report makes several recommendations, including the following: (1) raise the real value of stipends to a more competitive level; (2) maintain the annual number of predoctoral and postdoctoral awards in the basic biomedical sciences at 1993 levels; (3) increase the number of awards in the behavioral sciences; and (4) increase the awards in clinical sciences, oral health research, nursing research, and health services research.

FEDERAL CONTACT OFFICE: Office of the Director, NIH

PERSON: Walter Schaffer, Ph.D.

PHONE NUMBER: 301/435-2770

PIC NUMBER: 5567

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC

P.I.: National Academy of Sciences

TITLE: Evaluating the Effects of School-Based Intervention Programs To Prevent Teenager Drug Use and Abuse

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 044

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this followup study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of a junior high school-based prevention program for reducing student drug use and abuse. The intervention was based on Life Skills Training, an approach that teaches social resistance and other personal and coping skills. In 1986, schools were randomly assigned to one of two approaches to teaching Life Skills Training or to a control group (no training). This followup study was conducted 6 years later to determine the long-term efficacy of the intervention. The probability of smoking, drinking immoderately, or using marijuana was significantly lower, by as much as 40 percent, for students who received the intervention programs than for those in the control group. The study provides the first evidence that school-based intervention programs conducted by regular classroom teachers can produce durable reductions in tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use. The results provided empirical support for the efficacy of a school-based prevention strategy based on a broad-spectrum, cognitive-behavioral approach in prevention of drug use and abuse. Long-term prevention of effects were found, providing impetus for the widespread adoption of similarly designed programs.

FEDERAL CONTACT OFFICE: Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, NIDA

PERSON: Larry A. Seitz, Ph.D.

PHONE NUMBER: 301/443-1514

PIC NUMBER: Unassigned

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY

P.I.: Gilbert J. Botvin, Ph.D.

TITLE: Evaluation of NIH-Funded Condom Research Phase I: Evaluability Assessment

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 045

ABSTRACT: The objectives of this evaluation were to (1) assess the findings of condom use research efforts; (2) guide the development of future program areas; and (3) suggest methodological guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of future condom use research programs. This initial phase was an evaluability assessment to identify and inventory the universe of condom research studies as well as to determine whether or not a formal evaluation of past NIH-funded behavioral research on condom use would be feasible and useful. The results of this evaluability assessment are to be used by the Technical Advisory Group to decide whether to proceed to subsequent phases of more intensive evaluation. The conclusions of this activity indicate that an expanded evaluation is feasible and could provide useful information to guide the development of future program areas and to facilitate the evaluation of future condom research programs. A critical feasibility issue for any research synthesis is the identification of the universe of relevant studies. The Phase I activity developed a reproducible methodology to create a sampling frame, established a sampling frame of more than 500 studies, and developed and applied definitions that permitted sorting studies by key research characteristics and abstracting relevant information about funded projects. The final report will be disseminated to NIH Institutes and committees as well as other organizations or individuals involved in condom use research.

FEDERAL CONTACT OFFICE: Office of Policy Analysis and Technology Transfer, NIAID

PERSON: Wendy Liffers

PHONE NUMBER: 301/496-6752

PIC NUMBER: 5494

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC

P.I.: John W. Tintoul

TITLE: Indoor Allergens--Assessing and Controlling Adverse Health Effects

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 046

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize what is known among a broad range of experts whose efforts are directed toward achieving cleaner indoor environments. The focuses of this study were to evaluate the indoor environment and to appraise the knowledge base commonly available to physicians with respect to human exposure to indoor allergens. A committee of experts was appointed to (1) examine and characterize what is known about the adverse effects on human health caused by reactions, including asthma, to indoor allergens; (2) characterize the magnitude of these problems nationally; (3) define the populations commonly affected; and (4) identify the specific causative agents. The study reviewed published epidemiological reports, estimated the economic impact of these diseases, and determined the risk factors. It examined methods used in patient diagnosis and measurement of indoor allergen exposures and evaluated methods of abatement and control of sources of allergens. The study resulted in a book titled Indoor Allergens: Assessing and Controlling Health Effects. The book pointed out that indoor allergen exposure is a major risk factor for asthma and that exposure to indoor allergens may be increasing, in part because of house construction methods that have made homes "tight" and in part because individuals are spending more time indoors. The study should raise public perception of the importance of indoor allergens in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, and provide a framework for a research agenda to relieve the problem created by indoor allergens. The dissemination of the report should result in research proposals to pursue the suggestions in the report. In addition, NIAID intends to use the National Asthma Education Program to further disseminate the information in the report.

FEDERAL CONTACT OFFICE: Division of Immunology, Allergy, and Transplantation, NIAID

PERSON: Marshall Plaut, M.D.

PHONE NUMBER: 301/496-8973

PIC NUMBER: 4465

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC

P.I.: Andrew Pope, Ph.D.

TITLE: Outreach/Risk Reduction Strategies for Changing HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among Injection Drug Users

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 047

ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the effectiveness of outreach programs for reducing HIV-related risk behaviors of injection drug users (IDUs) and their sexual partners. Under the sponsorship of the National AIDS Demonstration Research Project, the outreach programs offer information about HIV infection, strategies for reducing the risk, counseling, support groups, and training in cognitive and social skills. The programs operated at 28 sites, at which data were collected on 13,475 IDUs and 1,637 sexual partners of IDUs. Investigators used a before/after design, comparing data at 6-month followup with those at baseline by using the AIDS Initial Assessment (AIA) and AIDS Followup Assessment (AFA). Comparison of AIA and AFA data for IDUs and analysis of interview data revealed that the interventions yielded significant decreases in HIV-related risk behaviors, especially related to needle use. Significant increases were found in the use of new rather than reused needles, bleach for cleaning injection equipment, and condoms--all behaviors that reduce risk. This study provided evidence that IDUs and their sexual partners can be reached, can listen to educational strategies to reduce risk, and can change their HIV-related risk behaviors. Reduction in drug injection frequency and use of noninjected drugs was especially noteworthy. Study findings led to the creation of a permanent program.

FEDERAL CONTACT OFFICE: Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, NIDA

PERSON: Richard Needle, Ph.D., M.P.H.

PHONE NUMBER: 301/443-6720

PIC NUMBER: 4655.1

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: NOVA Research Company, Bethesda, MD

TITLE: Study To Assess the Current and Future Demand for Bone Marrow and the Impact on Size of the National Marrow Donor Registry

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 048

ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to estimate the current and future size of the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) Registry. The purpose of the NMDP was to develop and maintain a registry of volunteer unrelated bone marrow donors; to facilitate bone marrow transplants by serving as a coordinating and communications center for a network of donor, collection, and transplant centers in the United States and internationally; and to facilitate research into the efficacy of unrelated donor marrow transplants. Bone marrow transplantation is used to treat patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia, Franconi's anemia, and severe combined immune deficiency, as well as patients with acute leukemia and lymphoma who have relapsed following initial therapy. The scope of the program was enlarged in 1992 to increase the number of minority donors in the registry. Strategic options with financial, cost, and service level implications were developed that will be used in program management.

FEDERAL CONTACT OFFICE: Office of Program Planning and Evaluation, NHLBI

PERSON: Barbara Packard

PHONE NUMBER: 301/496-6331

PIC NUMBER: 5687

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC

P.I.: Michael A. Soto, Ph.D.

TITLE: Survey of the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Physicians Related to Blood Use, Transfusion, and Donation

ABSTRACT NUMBER: 049

ABSTRACT: NHLBI conducted a nationwide survey that will provide quantitative measures of the reported knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to autologous and homologous blood transfusion and donation that are held by two groups of practicing physicians--physicians in specialty groups who are heavy users of blood and blood products and physicians in specialty groups who are involved in primary patient care. These two groups of physicians represent nine physician specialties--six specialties that are heavy users of blood products (anesthesiology, general surgery, cardiovascular surgery, orthopedic surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and neonatology) and three specialties of physicians involved in primary patient care (family practice, internal medicine, and general practice). Specifically, the survey measures how numerous advances in the use of blood and blood components and alternatives to homologous blood transfusion have affected the medical community. Survey results are being used to maximize the professional education component of the National Blood Resource Education Program and thereby to further ensure that blood and blood components are transfused only when therapeutically appropriate to ensure an adequate supply of safe blood and blood components to meet the Nation's needs.

FEDERAL CONTACT OFFICE: Office of Program Planning and Evaluation, NHLBI

PERSON: Barbara Packard

PHONE NUMBER: 301/496-6331

PIC NUMBER: 4008

PERFORMER ORGANIZATION: Maya Tech Corporation, Silver Spring, MD

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