Options for Full-Day Services for Children Participating in Head Start . Endnotes


1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Creating a 21st Century Head Start: Report of the Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion. Washington, D.C.: December 1993.

2 Ibid, pg. viii.

3 An Evaluability Assessment of Child Care Options for Work- Welfare Programs, Final Report, Maximus Inc., April 1988.

4 Private communications with Children's Defense Fund staff. Spring 1994.

5 Unpublished papers and summaries provided by ASPE staff.

6 Unpublished papers and summaries provided by ASPE staff.

7 A few children receive full-day services because of referrals from child protective services.

8 Note that this policy has now been changed and only reimburses the grantee on a part-day basis for children in the Head Start full- day class.

9 Of the 51 Head Start children, 10 to 12 are children of university staff, 6 to 8 are children of parents not directly affiliated with the university, and the rest are children of university students.

10 Prior to that time, the program only operated Head Start training projects.

11 The program also is accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).

12 Care for school-age children has been offered for seven years, and care for infants and toddlers has been offered since CCDBG funds became available two years ago.

13 who are supplemented by two non-Head Start preschool teachers

14 Head Start parents from the grantee agency in Bowling Green elect two representatives to this body, and Head Start parents from each delegate agency elect one representative. In addition, the program selects three community representatives.

15 DSI administers Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) child care funds, and DSS administers funds from the Social Services Block Grant (Title XX), Transitional Child Care (Title IV-A), At-Risk Child Care (Title IV-A), and CCDBG Federal programs.

16 Salary cost allocations are budgeted a year in advance, but are modified to reflect actual time allocations reflected on staff time sheets.

17 On the other hand, if their rent was not free, they would have to "collect" rent costs on a prorated basis from each Federal funding source that supports the program's children. This would become a problem, the director said, because no program, except Head Start, would provide rent reimbursement adequate to cover actual rent costs. Therefore, the program would be forced to cut costs in other areas, such as classroom materials or equipment.

18 Since that time, DSS has reimbursed on the basis of enrollment. However, because of abuses by both parents and child-care providers, DSS officials told us that, beginning next month, they will only reimburse programs for five absences per child a month, unless a written and reasonable explanation for more absences is provided by the programs on a case-by-case basis.

19 The director noted that the Head Start directors in the state advocated that the Virginia Council set aside a portion of CCDBG funds each year for the specific use of Head Start programs.

20 The NRCA community action agency received a small grant this year of $12,000 from the state Department of Social Services (DSS) to purchase child care services for the older siblings of Head Start children, but funds were expended during the summer, and the grant has not been renewed.

21 All of the children who receive full-day services participate in the Head Start center-based program option.

22 $93,089 will be used to purchase afternoon child care during the regular Head Start season (September through May), and $27,840 will be used to purchase full-time child care during the summer months when the Head Start program is closed.

23 Locally designed program options

24 Dinuba, Exeter, Farmersville, Lindsay, Porterville, Tulare, Visalia, and Woodlake

25 The programs close for two weeks at Christmas and two weeks in July.

26 The program has applied for Head Start expansion funds to serve 76 more children for the full day, beginning in July of 1995.

27 Tulare County ranks 6th out of 58 counties in California in the number of children living in extreme poverty. It ranks 2nd out of 58 counties in the number of teenage pregnancies.

28 Sixty of these children are funded by migrant Head Start, 320 receive full-day Head Start funding, 150 receive full-day GCC state funding, and 151 receive full-day funding that is partially provided by Head Start and partially provided by GCC.

29 This depends upon which source funds their program participation. As described later in this study, GCC income guidelines are more lenient than those of Head Start.

30 The program tries to support each teacher with at least two teacher's aides.

3131 For instance, the North Visalia center follows Title 22 from 5:00 a.m. until 8:30 a.m., and from 2:00 p.m. until 5:00 p.m. Title 5 is followed from 8:30 a.m. until 2:00 p.m.

32 The mandated Head Start staff/child ratios for classrooms with both three- and four-year-olds is actually 1:17.

33 Again, these policy council representatives do not necessarily have to be funded by Head Start.

34 This includes all services provided directly by the program. (The contract services department is funded by the Federal sources mentioned earlier.)

35 For instance, if, before a 4 percent Head Start pay raise, Head Start hypothetically funded 60 children, while GCC and SPS each funded 20 children, after the raise, the Tulare program would claim that Head Start funds 64 of the 100 total children, while GCC and SPS each fund only 17 children.

36 Based on the experience of its full-day subcontractors, Puget Sound estimates that the cost of full-day center-based care is about $10,000 per year per child. About $8,000 is paid by Head Start, and about $2,000 by state child care subsidies. The average annual cost per child across all of the programs (part- day and full-day) is about $5,200, which is nearly the same as the full-day cost for family child care. (The Head Start Director notes that child care costs in Washington tend to be higher than the national average.)