While consultation with tribes and consortia that have experience operating TANF may have helped tribes make their decision about whether to run the TANF program, the grantees in this study were among the first to develop and submit tribal TANF plans and, consequently, did not have such an opportunity. (4)Most of the grantees now work with and support the efforts of other tribes and consortia to develop and implement tribal TANF programs. For example, tribal grantees share information, strategies for negotiating with states and DHHS, and Memoranda of Understanding. The Hopi, Pascua Yaqui, Navajo, Salt River Pima-Maricopa, San Carlos Apache, White Mountain Apache, and Zuni tribes have formed the Southwest Regional TANF Coalition. The Torres Martinez Consortium has developed a best practices manual, which it distributes to interested tribes and consortia. The Port Gamble tribe promotes tribal TANF programs by providing consulting to other tribes in the Pacific Northwest. In addition to helping potential grantees in deciding to operate TANF, these tribal grantees and groups of grantees help each other and other grantees to improve their programs.