Oklahoma Marriage Initiative (OMI): Marriage and Relationship Skills Education as a Way to Prepare Prisoners for Reintegration. Endnotes


1.  Lopoo, L.M. & Western, B. (2005). Incarceration and the formation and stability of marital unions. Journal of Marriage and the Family 67(3), 721-734. Lynch, J.P. & Sabol, W.J. (2001). Prisoner reentry in perspective. Crime Policy Reports, vol. 3. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

2.  Western, B. (2004). Incarceration, marriage, and family life. Working paper 15-19-FF. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing.

3.  Hairston, C.F. (1988). Family ties during imprisonment: Do they influence future criminal activity? Federal Probation, LII(1). Hairston, C.F. & Lockette, P.W. (1987). Parents in prison: New directions for social sciences. Social Work, 32(2). Fishman, L.T. (1986). Prisoners wives interpretations of male criminality and subsequent arrest. Deviant Behavior, 7(2).

4.  Sampson, R.J. Laub, J.H., and Wimer, C. (2006). Does marriage reduce crime? A counterfactual approach to within-individual causal effects. Criminology, vol. 44(3).

5.  Sampson, R.J. & Laub, J.H.(1993). Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

6.  Warr, M. (1998). Life-course transitions and desistance from crime. Criminology, 36.

7.  Visher, C., Lavigne, N.G., & Travis, J. (2003). Understanding the challenges of prisoner reentry, Maryland Pilot Study: Findings from Baltimore. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

8.  Dowden, C. & Andrews, D.A. (1999). What works for female offenders: A meta-analytic review. Crime and Delinquency, 45(4).

9.  PREP is the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program, a 12-hour curriculum for strengthening relationships, developed by Howard Markman and Scott Stanley. It focuses on communication skills, problem solving, conflict management, and friendship.

10.  An exception to this policy is found at Eddie Warrior Correctional facility where curriculum content is included as a part of the services provided to Residential Substance Treatment Program (RSAT) participants.

11.  U.S. Bureau of Justice, data compiled by Womens Prison Association, available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/csfcf00.pdf (PDF). Also see Special Task Force for Women Incarcerated in Oklahoma (2004). See http://www.ocjrc.net/pubFiles/OtherPub/R-S/stffwiio.pdf (PDF)

12.  Special Task Force for Women (see note 11).

13.  Einhorn, L.A., Williams, T., Stanley, S.M., Wunderlin, N.K., Markman, H.J. & Eason, J. (2008), PREP Inside and Out: Marriage Education for Inmates. Family Process, Vol 47, No 3.


Evaluation Methodology for the OMI Process Study

Information reported in the OMI research brief series is based on an analysis of data gathered during a multi-year study of the initiatives design, development, and implementation.  Study methodologies included semi-structured interviews with individuals and groups, direct observation of program operations, focus groups with staff and participants, and secondary analysis of data from existing reports and surveys.  The research team met directly with more than 160 people involved with the OMI in various ways, focusing on implementation in the education, social services, health, military, and community volunteer sectors, and including a special emphasis on OMI services within the states correctional system. A full report of the findings of this study was released in December 2008.  Mathematicas research team was led by M. Robin Dion, and included Alan Hershey, Debra A. Strong, Heather Zaveri, Sarah Avellar, Tim Silman, Nikki Aikens, Betsy Santos, and Shawn Marsh.


About this Research Brief
This ASPE Research Brief describes lessons learned during the establishment of the Oklahoma Marriage Initiative, drawing on findings from an in-depth process evaluation being conducted by researchers at Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. under contract to ASPE.  This brief was prepared by M. Robin Dion, Timothy Silman, Debra A. Strong, and Betsy Santos.


How to Obtain a Printed Copy

To obtain a printed copy of this report, send the title and your mailing information to:

Human Services Policy, Room 404E
Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Ave, SW
Washington, DC 20201

Fax:  (202) 690-6562
Email:  pic@hhs.gov


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