The proposed rule is not expected to substantially affect productivity or economic growth. It is possible that productivity and growth in certain sectors of the health care industry could be slightly lower than otherwise because of the need to divert research and development resources to compliance activities. The diversion of resources to compliance activities would be temporary. Moreover, DHHS anticipates that, because the benefits of privacy are large, both productivity and economic growth would be higher than in the absence of the proposed rule. In section I.A. of this document, DHHS discusses its expectation that this proposed rule would increase communication among consumers, health plans, and providers and that implementation of privacy protections will lead more people to seek health care. The increased health of the population will lead to increased productivity and economic growth.