The number of usable workforce data estimates was eight for physician office EHRs, four for hospital EHRs, and two for community HII systems. For each type of system, the average workforce requirement per installation was calculated. For physician offices, the installation unit was considered to be a single physician. Therefore, workforce data for physician group installations was divided by the number of physicians to normalize them for comparison with the other estimates. For hospitals, a single hospital was considered to be one installation (with no differentiation based on size). No data was available for health care institutions other than hospitals.
Since there were eight data points for physician EHRs, the standard deviation for the distribution of values was calculated. These final workforce estimates are stated as the average +/- one standard deviation. For the other two activities, the number of data points was considered too small to justify distributional statistics.
The resultant workforce estimates are based on five years of implementation time, 400,000 physicians needing EHRs, 4,000 hospitals needing EHRs, and 300 communities requiring health information infrastructure. The calculations assume that the same personnel are available for multiple installations during the 5-year time frame. Therefore, decreasing the total time increases the workforce requirements.