National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts. Review of State CPS Policy. Levels of Evidence


The level of evidence needed for disposition decisionmaking was also reviewed.

  • Twenty-three States (45.1%) had relatively high standards (preponderance, material evidence, or clear and convincing) for substantiation;
  • Nineteen States (37.3%) had lower standards (credible, reasonable, or probable cause); and
  • Nine States (17.6%) did not specify a standard.

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