National Invitational Conference on Long-Term Care Data Bases: Conference Package. III. SAMPLE

05/01/1987

A. Sample Design

To compare the outcomes of channeling with what would have happened in the absence of channeling, the evaluation relied on an experimental design. Elderly persons who were referred to each channeling project were interviewed (most by telephone) by the project staff to determine their eligibility for channeling. If eligible, they were randomly assigned either to a treatment group, whose members could participate in channeling, or to a control group, whose members continued to rely on whatever services were otherwise available in their community. A total of 6,341 persons were randomly assigned to the two models of channeling. Given the substantial death rate among this population, as well as interview noncompletion, this yielded research samples of varying sizes, depending on the analysis. Table 3 shows the maximum sample sizes available for different subject areas for each model.

TABLE 3. Subject Areas, Data Sources, and Maximum Sample Sizes
- Primary Data Sources Maximum Sample Sizes
Basic Case Management Financial Control
6 Months 12 Months 18 Months 6 Months 12 Months 18 Months
Formal Community Care Individual Interviews 1647 1377 520 1803 1475 546
Nursing Home Use Medicare/Medicaid Records, Provider Records 2184 1876 741 2409 2023 774
Hospitals and Other Medical Services Medicare/Medicaid Records, Provider Records 2712 2291 1037 2842 2406 1017
Client Quality of Life Individual Interviews 1937 1671 647 2061 1745 668
Mortality Death Records Searches 3124 3124 1619 3202 3202 1546
Caregiver Quality of Life Caregiver Interviews 515 401 --- a 612 469 --- a
Costs Medicare/Medicaid Records, Provider Records, Channeling Project Cost Records, Individual Interviews --- b --- b --- b --- b --- b --- b
Informal Care Individual Interviews 1605 1345 510 1767 1456 534
Caregiver Interviews 515 401 --- a 612 469 --- a
NOTE: Maximum sample sizes are the number of observations available for analysis in each area, except for a small number of observations lost due to item nonresponse for some measures.
  1. Informal Caregiver Survey was not repeated at 18 months.
  2. The cost analysis combines estimates from the analyses of the other subject areas.

B. Sample Characteristics

The channeling sample was elderly and frail, with severe functional, health, social, and financial problems. This was by design; the eligibility criteria for the sample were intended to identify persons who were at risk of nursing home placement. The characteristics of the channeling clients at baseline are shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4. Characteristics of Channeling Treatment Group at Baseline
- Basic Case Management Model Financial Control Model All Sites
Health and Functioning
Any disability in ADL (percent) 83.4 84.2 83.9
Number of ADL disabilities (maximum 5) 2.7 2.8 2.7
Incontinent (percent) 52.5 53.6 53.1
Any impairment in IADL (percent) 99.5 99.8 99.7
Mental functioning (number incorrect on 10-item scale) 3.4 3.5 3.5
Days restricted to bed in last two months 19.5 20.1 19.8
Sociodemographic Characteristics
Living alone (percent) 35.1 39.1 37.2
Age (years) 79.2 80.1 79.7
Ethnic group (percent white) 75.6 71.1 73.3
Sex (percent female) 71.9 70.6 71.2
Married (percent) 31.9 32.9 32.4
Income and Assets
Monthly income (dollars) 567 572 570
Owns home (percent) 44.7 38.9 41.7
No assets other than home (percent) 59.4 55.1 57.2
Medicaid coverage (percent) 20.4 23.7 22.1
Life Quality
Stressful life event in past year (percent)      
Often lonely (percent) 27.0 25.7 26.3
No social contacts in past week (percent) 9.4 10.2 9.8
Number of unmet needs (maximum 8) 3.3 4.0 3.7
Not very satisfied with life (percent) 39.5 47.4 43.7
Waitlisted or applied to nursing home (percent) 7.3 6.3 6.8
Unwilling to go into nursing home (percent) 63.4 67.3 65.5
Prior Service Use
Case management received (percent) 8.8 16.9 13.1
Regular formal in-home care (percent) 57.4 63.5 60.6
Regular informal in-home care (percent) 92.5 92.0 92.2
Hospital admission, past two months (percent) 47.2 49.9 48.7
SAMPLE SIZES: Basic model 1,638; financial model 1,815.