National Evaluation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Final Report. Household Income

09/01/2004

The mean monthly household income of WtW enrollees ranged from $1,100 to $1,800 at the end of the second year following program entry. In Baltimore County, Milwaukee, St. Lucie County, and Yakima, the mean household income was $1,500 per month or more (Exhibit V.7).(58) In these sites, the mean values of earnings by all household members, including the enrollee, were highest. In Baltimore County and St. Lucie County, the enrollees themselves generated most of the household earnings, as would be expected given the population targeted by the JHU programs in these sites. In sharp contrast, in the Milwaukee site, other persons contributed almost twice as much to household earnings as enrollees themselves. In Yakima, the enrollees and other members of their households contributed equal amounts of earnings.

WtW enrollees in Boston, Nashville, Philadelphia, and West Virginia had the lowest mean total household incomes  less than $1,200 per month. Earnings by the enrollees and others in their households were both low in these sites. These happen to be sites that followed a pre-employment model. Enrollees in sites that followed an employment model (Chicago, Ft. Worth, Phoenix, and Yakima) had higher mean total household incomes, but that was almost entirely due to higher earnings by other household members  a difference in outcomes that is almost certainly due to differences at baseline rather than to differences in the efficacy of the two program models.

Household income was remarkably stable between the end of the first year following program entry and the end of the second. There was no site for which this study found statistically significant evidence of a change in the mean household income (Appendix Exhibit B.20). The mean household income of enrollees in Milwaukee was about $300 per month higher at the end of the second year than at the end of the first, but given the sites small sample size, this difference is not large enough to be statistically significant.(59)

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