WtW enrollees who were employed two years after program entry typically put in a full or nearly full workweek on their primary job. Exhibit IV.12 shows that the mean hours of work per week on the principal job ranged from 32 to 38 across the 11 study sites. With the exception of Nashville, in no site did more than 10 percent of employed enrollees work fewer than 20 hours per week on their principal job (Appendix Exhibit B.8). While employed enrollees worked nearly full-time hours on average in a week, they were not necessarily employed consistently week after week over the course of a month, which may have reduced their monthly earnings.
Since local programs funded by WtW grants were expected to be integrated with the corresponding state TANF programs, it is appropriate to assess the hours WtW enrollees worked in terms of the TANF work requirement, as specified in the 1996 PRWORA legislation. This requirement can be paraphrased as, The nonexempt adult head of a single-parent TANF case must spend at least 30 hours per week working on a job for pay or participating in work-related activities. Participation in education and training programs may account for no more than 10 of the required hours.(48)
In Exhibit IV.13, the TANF work requirement is used as a standard against which to assess employment outcomes for WtW enrollees two years after program entry, without regard for their actual TANF participation status at that time. The exhibit displays the percentage of enrollees who would have satisfied the TANF work requirement based on 30 or more hours of paid employment alone, based on hours worked in all jobs held at the end of the second year, not just the principal job.
The rates at which WtW enrollees would have satisfied the TANF 30-hour weekly work requirement if they had been on TANF two years after program entry were lower than their rates of employment, but the patterns of these two measures were similar across the study sites. Exhibit IV.13 shows that 50 to 60 percent of enrollees in the JHU sites were employed at levels consistent with the TANF requirement, whereas only about one-third of enrollees in the other sites were (with the exception of West Virginia, where 40 percent of enrollees were working at least 30 hours per week).(49)
The main reason for not satisfying the TANF 30-hour-per-week work standard was the absence of any employment, not insufficient hours of work (Exhibit IV.14). For example, in Chicago 61 percent of enrollees did not meet the 30-hour standard because they were not employed. Only 4 percent were working between 1 and 20 hours, and 7 percent were working between 20 and 30 hours. Even assuming that the latter group had no other work-related activities that would have allowed them to meet the TANF 30-hour requirement, the number of enrollees who did not meet the standard because they were not working was more than 5 times the number of those who did not meet it because they did not work enough hours. This ratio was similar or greater for all other sites except the two JHU sites, where it was between 2 and 3.
MEAN NUMBEROF MONTHS UNTIL WtW ENROLLEES FIRST JOB AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY
Reference: Exhibit B.7, Fraker et al. 2004
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