National Evaluation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Final Report. Homelessness

09/01/2004

WtW enrollees in three of the study sites  Boston, Milwaukee, and Phoenix  exhibited high rates of homelessness during the second year following program entry. Exhibit V.11 illustrates that 9 percent of enrollees in Boston lived in emergency or long-term shelters sometime during the year. A more extreme form of homelessness was common among enrollees in Milwaukee and Phoenix, where 12 percent and 10 percent, respectively, lived on the streets sometime during the year.(66) In sharp contrast, the rates of these two forms of homelessness did not exceed 2 percent in the predominantly rural sites of St. Lucie County and West Virginia. In the remaining study sites, rates were 7 percent or lower.

The incidence of homelessness fell during the second year after program entry in several study sites, particularly where rates of homelessness were high. The top panel of Exhibit V.13 shows that the percentage of enrollees who lived in a shelter fell significantly during the second year in Boston, Phoenix, and Yakima. The bottom panel shows that enrollees in Boston and Chicago were significantly less likely to have lived on the streets during the second year following program entry than during the first. Among the three sites with the highest rates of homelessness during the second year, rates had actually fallen in Boston and Phoenix but not in Milwaukee.

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