(25) DOLs interim rules for the WtW grants state that, Activities conducted with WtW funds must be grounded in the work first philosophy which is a fundamental tenet of the Act (PRWORA). Although a variety of activities are authorized under WtW, these activities should be viewed as employment-based developmental steps for helping individuals secure and retain unsubsidized employment (DOL 1997, pages 61593-61594).
(26) DOL states, While the legislation (PL 105-33, 1997) does not permit stand-alone training activities independent of a job, allowing them as post-employment activities only while the participant is working in a subsidized or unsubsidized job reflects the basic work first thrust of the legislation (DOL 1997, page 61594).
(27) Public Law 106-113 (1999).
(28) The allowance of limited pre-employment services under WtW in the 1999 amendments had little effect on program services because many WtW grantees had already established procedures with TANF agencies regarding eligibility, referrals, cost sharing, etc. Additionally, some grantees had already issued contracts to organizations to operate programs consistent with program models that had been specified prior to the amendments.
(29) The evaluations 12-month follow-up survey inquired about the receipt of each of eight ancillary services: (1) life-skills training, (2) mental health services, (3) substance abuse treatment, (4) medical attention to correct a work-limiting physical condition, (5) legal assistance, (6) counseling, (7) peer support/discussion group, and (8) mediation services. Longer-run education and training programs are discussed in Section B.2.
(30) Referral to education and training programs was also a distinctive feature of the JHU program design. Evidence presented later in this section documents that WtW enrollees in Baltimore County and St. Lucie County were more likely to have participated in education and training programs than enrollees in most of the other study sites.
(31) Findings on the duration of services were originally reported by Fraker et al. 2004. The results cited in this and the succeeding two paragraphs are presented in Exhibit III.3 in that report.
(32) The 12-month follow-up survey gathered information on participation in vocational or technical training, occupational skills training, and college programs.
(33) The program design in Philadelphia included transitional employment placement for all enrollees; thus, it is clear that some enrollees dropped out of the program or found a job before receiving this service.
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