National Evaluation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Final Report. Comparison of Services with Program Models

09/01/2004

The services that WtW enrollees actually received were broadly consistent with the program models in their respective study sites. Exhibit III.6 shows that enrollees in the four sites that adopted the pre-employment model had high rates of receipt of job readiness training (60 percent or higher), and that training was of relatively long duration, ranging from 18 days in Nashville to 44 days in Boston and Philadelphia. This training may have delayed the entry of enrollees into jobs, as the elapsed time from program entry until the first job was relatively high, averaging 4.7 months across these sites. The two sites that implemented the JHU post-employment model had relatively low rates of receipt of employment preparation services among their enrollees. But in these sites, three in ten enrollees received advanced education or training  double the proportion in sites that had adopted other program models. Enrollee statistics for the four sites that adopted the employment model differ from those of the pre-employment sites in two respects that are consistent with differences between the program models. The employment sites had a lower proportion of enrollees who received job readiness training (56 percent) and shorter duration of training (16 days on average across the four sites). The elapsed time until the first job was also lower, averaging 4.4 months.

The Milwaukee site adopted a distinctive rehabilitative model that focused on the reintroduction of recently released prisoners into society and the labor force. The enrollee statistics presented in Exhibit III.6 clearly distinguish this site from those that adopted other program models. Enrollees in the NOW program were less likely to receive employment preparation services and required substantially more time (5.8 months on average) to enter their first post-enrollment job than enrollees in the other sites. As presented in Exhibit III.3, Milwaukee enrollees were more likely than those in most of the other study sites to have participated in peer support groups (28 percent) or to have received counseling (32 percent), legal assistance (14 percent), or substance abuse treatment (21 percent). The time that enrollees took to participate in these ancillary services may partially account for the long duration between their entry into WtW and the start of their first job.

Chicago and Ft. Worth are the study sites for which the services received by WtW enrollees were least consistent with our program model classification scheme. This chapter concludes with brief discussions of these two sites.

The large number and diversity of WtW programs in the Chicago study site  with its 20 individual programs  made the assignment of this site to a single program model problematic. Some of the programs emphasized job readiness instruction prior to job placement, others featured transitional employment in subsidized jobs, and yet others focused on the rapid attachment of enrollees to unsubsidized jobs. However, a strong work first emphasis cut across all of the WtW programs in Chicago, and most enrollees entered rapid-attachment programs. Consequently, Exhibit III.6 lists the Chicago site as having adopted the employment model. The diverse programs in Chicago account for its distinctiveness among the employment-model sites in that the Chicago enrollees received both job readiness training and job search assistance at high rates (72 percent and 66 percent, respectively) and for long periods (medians of 30 and 9 days, respectively).

Ft. Worth also stands out among the sites that adopted the employment model. Here, enrollees there were much less likely to receive employment preparation services and required an additional month, on average, to find jobs. Only 39 percent of the Ft. Worth enrollees received job readiness training and just 44 percent received job search assistance; they required an average of 5.2 months to find their first job. In principle, participation in ancillary employment preparation services might account for the delayed entry of Ft. Worth enrollees into employment  but in reality, these enrollees had very low rates of receipt of such services. Earlier in this chapter we characterized the Ft. Worth site as providing primarily self-directed rather than staff-guided job search activities. The summary statistics in Exhibit III.6 suggest that the Ft. Worth enrollees might have benefited from more staff attention.

EXHIBIT III.1
STUDY SITES CLASSIFIED BY PROGRAM MODEL, WITH KEY ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM DESIGN
Program Model Study Site

Key Elements of Program Design

Employment Chicago

Ft. Worth

Phoenix

Yakima

  • Within a diversity of service delivery approaches, provide employment, training, and supportive services needed to move participants rapidly into unsubsidized jobs
  • Focus on rapid transition to employment as opposed to pre- or post-employment training
  • Three weeks of pre-employment preparation, followed by job placement and retention services
  • 12 weeks of required job search, followed as necessary by case management, job search assistance, job placement, subsidized employment, and supportive services
Pre-Employment Boston

Nashville

Philadelphia

WV-HRDF

  • Focus on moving program participants into full-time jobs in the private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors through employer-based training
  • Intensive case management and problem-solving support in a supportive peer-group environment
  • Job readiness training, followed by six months of subsidized paid transitional employment, then placement in an unsubsidized job
  • Four weeks of job readiness training, followed by up to six months of unpaid work experience, then placement in a paid job
Rehabilitative Milwaukee
  • In the context of a strong case-management approach, provide noncustodial parents on probation or parole with job readiness, placement, and retention services, as well as substance-abuse treatment
Post-Employment Baltimore Co.JHU

St. Lucie Co.JHU

  • Workplace liaisons works with employed individuals and their employers to promote job retention and movement up career ladders
  • Workplace liaisons works with employed individuals and their employers to promote job retention and movement up career ladders

EXHIBIT III.2
PERCENTAGE OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED ANY EMPLOYMENT PREPARATION SERVICES DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY

Exhibit III.2: PERCENTAGE OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED ANY EMPLOYMENT PREPARATION   SERVICES DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY.

The evaluation's 12-month follow-up survey gathered information on the following employment preparation services: job readiness training, job search or placement services, life-skills classes, mental health services, substance abuse treatment, medical attention to correct a work-limiting physical condition, legal assistance, counseling, peer support/dicussion group, and mediation services.
Reference: Fraker et al. 2004, Exhibit B.1

EXHIBIT III.3
PERCENTAGES OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED SPECIFIC TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT PREPARATION SERVICES DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY

EXHIBIT III.3 PERCENTAGES OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED SPECIFIC TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT PREPARATION SERVICES   DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY.

EXHIBIT III.3 PERCENTAGES OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED SPECIFIC TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT PREPARATION SERVICES   DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY.

EXHIBIT III.4
PERCENTAGE OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED ANY SKILL ENHANCEMENT SERVICES (EDUCATION OR TRAINING) DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY

EXHIBIT III.4 PERCENTAGE OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED ANY SKILL ENHANCEMENT SERVICES (EDUCATION OR TRAINING)   DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY.

The evaluation's 12-month follow-up survey gathered information on the following skill enhancement services: GED or high school, adult basic education, English as a second language, vocational or technical training, occupational skills training, and college programs.
Reference: Fraker et al. 2004, Exhibit B.4

EXHIBIT III.5
PERCENTAGES OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED SPECIFIC TYPES OF SKILL ENHANCEMENT SERVICES DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY

EXHIBIT III.5 PERCENTAGES OF WtW ENROLLEES WHO RECEIVED SPECIFIC TYPES OF SKILL ENHANCEMENT SERVICES DURING THE YEAR AFTER PROGRAM ENTRY.

EXHIBIT III.6
RECEIPT OF SERVICES AND DURATION UNTIL FIRST JOB IN STUDY SITES CLASSIFIED BY PROGRAM MODEL
Program Model Study Site Employment Preparation Skill Enhancement Mean Duration Until First Jobb
Job Readiness Training Job Search Assistance
Percent Receiving Median Durationa Percent Receiving Median Durationa Advanced Educ./Training
Employment Chicago

Ft. Worth

Phoenix

Yakima

Average

72%

39%

62%

52%

56%

30 days

6 days

21 days

9 days

16 days

66%

44%

63%

60%

58%

9 days

4 days

4 days

4 days

5 days

13%

12%

9%

18%

13%

4.5 mo.

5.2 mo.

3.8 mo.

4.3 mo.

4.4 mo.

Pre-Employment Boston

Nashville

Philadelphia

WV-HRDF

Average

60%

60%

80%

73%

68%

44 days

18 days

44 days

24 days

32 days

56%

60%

73%

64%

63%

14 days

4 days

6 days

4 days

7 days

17%

19%

10%

18%

16%

4.7 mo.

4.6 mo.

4.3 mo.

5.1 mo.

4.7 mo

Rehabilitative Milwaukee 40% 13 days 45% 8 days 14% 5.8 mo.
Post-Employment Baltimore Co.JHU

St. Lucie Co.-JHU

Average

44%

49%

46%

8 days

6 days

7 days

44%

47%

45%

4 days

2 days

3 days

28%

31%

29%

4.9 mo.

4.0 mo.

4.4 mo.

a The median duration of a service was computed on the basis of just those enrollees who received the service in question.

b The mean duration until the first job following program entry was computed on the basis of enrollees who obtained employment after program entry. Those who were employed at entry or who were never employed after entry were excluded from the computation.

View full report

Preview
Download

"report.pdf" (pdf, 1.18Mb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"apc.pdf" (pdf, 75.49Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"apd.pdf" (pdf, 27.02Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"ape.pdf" (pdf, 12.59Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"apf.pdf" (pdf, 70.51Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®