Helping young mothers delay second pregnancies and births is very difficult. None of the demonstration programs had consistent or meaningful impacts on repeat pregnancies or births.
- TPD had no consistent significant impacts on pregnancies and births during the evaluation. Only the site with the most intensive family planning workshops and the smallest average caseloads succeeded in reducing the average number of pregnancies and births in the long term, and, then, by quite small amounts.
- By three years after program entry, LEAP had no significant impact on subsequent births.
- Overall, New Chance had no significant impacts on subsequent pregnancies or births. Two sites with relatively more intensive family planning components delayed subsequent pregnancies significantly, but longer-term birth rates were not affected.