Modest increases in participation in education and training in the short term are not likely to translate into greater employment and earnings later on, at least when they are not accompanied by increases in basic skills.
- After four years of operation, the TPD programs ended and their impacts faded. The TPD programs increased employment and earnings while the teenage mothers were subject to the participation requirements and received support services (for an average of two and a half years). These impacts faded, however, once the teenagers were transitioned back to the regular welfare policies, which did not link cash assistance to activity levels and did not offer the same level of support services.
- LEAP increased short-term employment levels and earnings for teenagers who were in school when they entered LEAP, but these impacts faded once the teenage parents aged out of LEAP and were no longer affected by its financial incentives.
- New Chance had no long-term impacts on employment, earnings, income, or welfare receipt.