Employment-focused programs generally produce large increases in job search participation, while education-focused programs usually lead to large increases in adult education participation.
All the NEWWS programs raised participation relative to control group levels. Figure 2 shows the participation impacts, split by type of activity and averaged across programs within each of the four program types shown in Table 2. The employment-focused programs increased participation in job search by approximately 30 percentage points. The education-focused programs -- in which enrollees were often assigned to job search after education or training -- also increased job search participation, but to a much lesser degree. The employment-focused programs were considerably less likely to affect participation in education and training, and when impacts on participation in these activities did occur, they were smaller than the education-focused programs' impacts on job search participation. The Portland program, the only one that combined an employment focus with a mixed strategy for assigning recipients to initial activities, substantially increased job search participation but increased education and training participation as well. Notably, the participation impacts were comparable across a range of subgroups. Where the relevant data were available, participation rates for mothers with young children, for example, were similar to those for mothers with older children.
Impacts on participation over Two Years, by Activity and Program Type:
Employment-Focused Programs Produced Large Increases in Job Search Participation,
and Education-Focused Programs Boosted Adult Education Participation
SOURCE: Freeman et al., 2000
NOTES: Participation impacts were averaged across programs within each program type.
The Riverside LFA program results include both graduates and nongraduates.
No tests of statistical significance were performed.