Moving People from Welfare to Work. Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.. Appendix: NEWWS Program Summaries

07/01/2002

Appendix Table.
Summary of NEWWS Program Activities, Environments, and Results
Program Activities Sample and Site Characteristics Five-Year Net Cost per Program Group Member ($) Year Control Group Impact

SOURCES:  Hamilton et al., 2001; Michalopoulos and Schwartz, 2001.

NOTES:  Data on race/ethnicity in each site refer to the research sample, not to the general welfare caseload or population in that side.
The unemploment rate is for the year in which random assignment began.
Welfare grant amount are for a family of three with no earnings.
Net costs are expressed in 1999 dollars.

Atlanta LFA Job search (typically job club) was the firstactivity for almost all participants; if no jobwas found after job search, short-term vocational training or adult education were the most common next activities 90% African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 3
Welfare grant: $280 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 6.2%
3,974 Earnings ($)
Year 1 1,647 396***
Year 2 2,578 650***
Year 3 3,313 618***
Year 4 4,255 560**
Year 5 5,586 235
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 82.7 -4.5***
Year 2 70.9 -6.2***
Year 3 61.2 -5.1***
Year 4 50.1 -5.7***
Year 5 36.5 -3.9**
Grand Rapids LFA Job search (typically job club) was the first activity for almost all participants; if no job was found after job search, work experience or (for some) short-term vocational training or adult education were the most common next activities 50% white, 40% African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 1
Welfare grant: $474 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 5.5%
1,987 Earnings ($)
Year 1 1,759 530***
Year 2 2,874 511***
Year 3 4,211 447**
Year 4 5,480 135
Year 5 6,447 -71
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 77.8 -9.1***
Year 2 60.8 -7.3***
Year 3 48.0 -6.8***
Year 4 38.0 -5.6 ***
Year 5 27.8 -3.5**
Riverside LFA Job search (typically job club) was the first activity for almost all participants; if no job was found after job search, continued job search or (for some) vocational training were the most common next activities search or, in some cases, life skills classes. 50% white, 35% Hispanic
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 3
Welfare grant: $624 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 11.7%
3,320 Earnings ($)
Year 1 1,741 719***
Year 2 2,482 557***
Year 3 2,957 432***
Year 4 3,554 313*
Year 5 4,155 528***
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 69.6 -6.7***
Year 2 56.4 -6.4***
Year 3 47.6 -4.8***
Year 4 41.1 -4.2***
Year 5 34.6 -4.4***
Portland Less job-ready people were assigned to adult education, vocational training, or life skills classes at the discretion of case managers; others were assigned to job search or, in some cases, life skills classes. Job search was the most common next activity for those who completed their initial activities 80% white, 20% African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 1
Welfare grant: $460 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 6.6%
2,865 Earnings ($)
Year 1 2,484 343*
Year 2 3,150 1,271***
Year 3 4,050 1,441***
Year 4 5,112 1,207***
Year 5 6,095 887**
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 68.0 -8.3***
Year 2 53.3 -12.7***
Year 3 38.6 -12.8***
Year 4 22.5 -6.0***
Year 5 17.1 -4.8***
Atlanta HCD Adult education was the most common first activity for people without a high school diploma or GED; vocational training was the most common first activity for others. Job search or vocational training were the most common next activities for people who completed these initial activities 90% African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 3
Welfare grant: $280 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 6.2%
5,480 Earnings ($)
Year 1 1,647 199*
Year 2 2,578 480***
Year 3 3,313 599***
Year 4 4,255 655***
Year 5 5,586 84
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 82.7 -2.0
Year 2 70.9 -4.8***
Year 3 61.2 -3.8**
Year 4 50.1 -3.2*
Year 5 36.5 -2.1
Grand Rapids HCD Adult education was the most common first activity for people without a high school diploma or GED; vocational training was the most common first activity for others, although some were first assigned to "brush-up" basic education courses or work experience. Job search or vocational training were the most common next activities for people who completed these initial activities 50% white, 40% African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 1
Welfare grant: $474 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 5.5%
3,773 Earnings ($)
Year 1 1,759 110
Year 2 2,874 479***
Year 3 4,211 303
Year 4 5,480 56
Year 5 6,447 -102
  Welfare receipt (%)  
Year 1 77.8 -4.2***
Year 2 60.8 -6.4***
Year 3 48.0 -6.3***
Year 4 38.0 -5.6***
Year 5 27.8 -2.0
Riverside HCD Adult education was the most common first activity; job search or vocational training was the most common next activity for people who completed this first activity. All sample members in this program lacked a high school diploma or GED certificate,attained low scores on a reading or math test at program entry, or had limited proficiency in English 50% white, 35% Hispanic
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 3
Welfare grant: $624 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 11.7%
4,573 Earnings ($)
Year 1 1,250 196*
Year 2 1,886 139
Year 3 2,150 411**
Year 4 2,601 255
Year 5 3,025 359
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 72.3 -4.1***
Year 2 60.0 -4.1**
Year 3 52.1 -5.9***
Year 4 46.3 -7.5***
Year 5 39.0 -5.7***
Columbus Integrated Adult education was the most common first activity for people without a high school diploma or GED; "brush-up" basic education, vocational training, and postsecondary education were the most common first activities for others 50% white, 50% African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 3
Welfare grant: $341 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 4.6%
4,183 Earnings ($)
Year 1 2,914 80
Year 2 3,982 595***
Year 3 5,134 510***
Year 4 6,260 463**
Year 5 7,276 406
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 72.5 -4.5***
Year 2 53.8 -6.8***
Year 3 40.3 -7.1***
Year 4 27.6 -5.3***
Year 5 16.5 -3.8***
Columbus Traditional Adult education was the most common first activity for people without a high school diploma or GED; "brush-up" basic education, vocational training, and postsecondary education were the most common first activities for others 50% white, 50% African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 3
Welfare grant: $341 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 4.6%
3,772 Earnings ($)
Year 1 2,914 185
Year 2 3,982 490***
Year 3 5,134 325*
Year 4 6,260 298
Year 5 7,276 113
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 72.5 -3.6***
Year 2 53.8 -4.6***
Year 3 40.3 -5.5***
Year 4 27.6 -3.0**
Year 5 16.5 -2.4**
Detroit During the first half of the study period, adult education was the most common first activity for people without a high school diploma or GED; vocational training or postsecondary education were the most common first activities for others. During the second half of the study period, almost everyone still on welfare was assigned to job search Mostly African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 1
Welfare grant: $459 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 8.0%
2,053 Earnings ($)
Year 1 1,341 57
Year 2 2,663 313**
Year 3 4,112 481**
Year 4 5,570 351
Year 5 6,823 258
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 86.5 -1.1
Year 2 73.7 -3.6***
Year 3 61.4 -4.8***
Year 4 48.1 -3.0**
Year 5 35.2 -0.2
Oklahoma City Adult education, vocational training, and postsecondary education were the most common activities 70% white, 30% African-American
Mandatory for parents with no child under age 1
Welfare grant: $324 (1993)
Unemployment rate: 5.6%
N/A Earnings ($)
Year 1 1,387 16
Year 2 2,127 -5
Year 3 2,672 -40
Year 4 3,068 45
Year 5 3,498 100
Welfare receipt (%)
Year 1 53.1 -3.1***
Year 2 41.0 -1.9
Year 3 32.7 -2.4**
Year 4 n/a n/a
Year 5 n/a n/a