Measures of Material Hardship: Final Report. Joint Frequency of Housing Safety Issues and Overcrowding

04/01/2004

Individual housing safety issues and overcrowding are strong predictors of each other. (Exhibit 4.16) For example, households with pest problems (the most common safety issue, affecting 15% of the households with children) are two-to-four times as likely to experience each of the other six safety issues as the general population, and twice as likely to be overcrowded. Similarly, overcrowded households (2% of the population) are two-to-three times more likely to experience each of the safety issues, than households in the general population.

Similar qualitative relationships, at higher rates, are seen when the sample is restricted to households under 100% FPL. (Exhibit 4.17) About a quarter of those with pest problems also experience leaking roofs or ceilings, broken windows, and holes in the wall or ceiling. Those with the least common (and most serious) safety issues  exposed wires, nonworking plumbing, and holes in the floor  have very high prevalences of nearly all of the other safety issues. For example, among households under 100% FPL with exposed wires in their homes, 87% also have pest problems, 61% have leaking roofs or ceilings, and 65% have holds in their walls or ceilings.

 

Exhibit 4.16
Joint Frequency of Housing Safety Issues and Overcrowding
  Problem with pests Leaking roof or ceiling Broken windows Exposed wires Nonworking plumbing Holes in wall or ceiling Holes in floor 3+ safety issues 4+ safety issues Over-
crowding
Overall Frequency 15.3 7.4 5.6 1.0 3.2 5.1 1.0 3.4 1.5 1.9
Problem with pests 100.0 19.0 18.0 4.0 10.5 17.0 4.3 18.3 8.3 4.0
Leaking roof or ceiling 39.5 100.0 22.7 6.6 13.8 24.6 5.3 29.6 15.5 3.4
Broken windows 49.6 30.1 100.0 8.7 20.0 30.0 8.2 41.0 20.6 4.2
Exposed wires 60.3 47.8 48.0 100.0 31.7 61.2 16.1 73.3 50.9 6.1
Nonworking plumbing 50.1 31.7 34.7 10.0 100.0 33.4 10.8 47.7 25.6 4.8
Holes in wall or ceiling 51.3 35.7 32.8 12.2 21.1 100.0 11.8 46.9 25.4 4.7
Holes in floor 64.4 38.5 45.0 16.0 33.9 58.8 100.0 65.2 50.7 5.1
3+ safety issues 81.8 63.7 66.4 21.6 44.5 69.4 19.4 100.0 42.9 5.3
4+ safety issues 86.6 77.9 77.7 35.0 55.8 87.9 35.1 100.0 100.0 4.5
Overcrowding 33.0 13.6 12.6 3.3 8.3 12.8 2.8 9.9 3.6 100.0
Notes:  Cell entries represent percent of households that have characteristic shown in column, among those that have characteristic shown in row.

 

Exhibit 4.17
Joint Frequency of Housing Safety Issues and Overcrowding, Households Under 100% FPL
  Problem with pests Leaking roof or ceiling Broken windows Exposed wires Nonworking plumbing Holes in wall or ceiling Holes in floor 3+ safety issues 4+ safety issues Over-
crowding
Overall Frequency 25.3 11.3 10.2 2.4 5.0 9.0 2.0 7.9 3.4 4.9
Problem with pests 100.0 24.2 26.2 8.1 12.5 24.0 7.0 27.6 13.0 8.7
Leaking roof or ceiling 54.2 100.0 32.7 12.7 13.7 34.4 8.7 42.8 23.5 7.1
Broken windows 65.3 36.4 100.0 11.8 21.9 37.5 10.2 51.0 25.0 7.6
Exposed wires 86.9 60.9 50.5 100.0 35.4 64.6 21.5 84.7 64.2 5.8
Nonworking plumbing 63.1 30.8 44.5 16.7 100.0 42.6 14.5 60.2 29.4 6.2
Holes in wall or ceiling 67.5 43.1 42.3 17.0 23.7 100.0 17.5 63.5 34.2 7.7
Holes in floor 86.4 48.1 50.7 25.0 35.7 77.3 100.0 81.5 70.3 4.1
3+ safety issues 88.6 61.5 65.9 25.4 38.3 72.7 21.1 100.0 43.2v 7.1
4+ safety issues 96.5 78.3 74.7 44.6 43.3 90.6 42.1 100.0 100.0 6.0
Overcrowding 45.4 16.6 15.8 2.8 6.4 14.3 1.7 11.4 4.2 100.0
Notes:  Cell entries represent percent of households that have characteristic shown in column, among those that have characteristic shown in row.

 

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