Data on USG philanthropic spending were obtained from two different sources. For international spending in developing countries, OECD data were used. Specifically, the OECD.Stat data warehouse reports Official Development Assistance (ODA) to all low- and middle-income countries as measured by per capita Gross National Income. ODA is reported by sector and recipient country. Dollar flows include grants, commodities, services, and certain capital transactions. The most comprehensive source of USG domestic philanthropic spending is the FAADS, compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau. FAADS data are also closest in content to foundation spending as reported by the Foundation Center and to this studys operational definition of philanthropic spending. FAADS is a central repository of data on USG financial assistance provided by grants, loans, insurance, and transfer payments. We used OECD sectors and FAADS codes to classify USG spending into our six sectors.
Compared to foundation spending, USG philanthropic spending was even more weighted toward the domestic sphere (Table C.1). International spending represented just 1.5 percent of all USG philanthropic spending in 2002. However, the amount of international spending doubled by 2004 and, due to this increase and to a decline in domestic spending, represented 3.5 percent of all USG philanthropic spending in that year.
Development spending received the largest share of ODA from 2002 to 2006, ranging from roughly half to two-thirds of total USG international philanthropic spending (Table C.2). Health spending followed at just under 20 percent in 2002 and 2006 but less12 percentin 2004. Development spending nearly tripled from 2002 to 2004, coinciding with USG reconstruction work in Iraq.
The largest amount of all USG philanthropic spending was directed toward domestic human services, at nearly $280 billion in 2006 (Table C.3). Development spending represented nearly a third of USG domestic spending in all three years.
In 2006, countries in the Middle East and North Africa region received the largest share of USG ODA (Table C.4). The regional distribution of ODA changed substantially toward this region from 2002 to 2004, in large part due to a significant increase in ODA to Iraq. Spending in sub-Saharan Africa was roughly equivalent to spending in the Middle East and North Africa in 2006 (32 percent compared to 33 percent, respectively).