PMI, launched in 2005, is a five-year expansion of federal resources to fight malaria in the regions most affected by the disease. PMI is an interagency initiative led by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and implemented together with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The U.S. Malaria Coordinator oversees this with an interagency steering group made up of representatives of USAID, CDC/HHS, the Department of State, the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, and the Office of Management and Budget.
PMI was established to assist the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) in up to 15 target countries to strive toward cutting their malaria-related deaths by 50 percent. It does not provide funding to target country governments or government agencies, though it coordinates efforts with them. Instead, PMI directly funds four key intervention strategies to prevent and treat malaria: (1) spraying with insecticides (indoor residual spraying or IRS), (2) insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs), (3) lifesaving drugs, and (4) treatment for pregnant women (intermittent preventive treatment or IPT). To help deliver these interventions PMI provides commodities including drugs, ITNs, and appropriate insecticides for residual spraying. It also aims to strengthen countries logistics, management, communication, and training infrastructure to distribute commodities and implement the four strategies. PMI promotes private sector involvement including corporations, community-based and faith-based organizations, and others in funding and delivering interventions. As a guideline, PMI has a target of using 40 to 50 percent of its funding in the provision of commodities. The remainder of the budget is spent on training, logistics, delivering commodities to patients, and monitoring and evaluation.
PMI target countries are Angola, Tanzania, and Uganda (beginning in 2006); Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Senegal (2007); and Benin, Ethiopia (Oromia Region), Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, and Zambia (2008).