Subsequent chapters of the report provide information for both of its primary audiences: policymakers and practitioners. Chapter II describes our findings on USG-foundation interactions and types of interactions, using examples from the case studies. It may be of special interest to policymakers as a primer on existing interactions and opportunities for partnerships. Chapters III and IV focus on specific components of interactions. These chapters are aimed primarily at planners and practitioners. Using cross-case analysis of the data collected through the nine case studies of public and private philanthropic endeavors, both chapters present key issues relating to potential interactions and partnerships, which USG officials engaged in philanthropic efforts may wish to consider as they identify problems, develop solutions, and assess progress. These chapters identify factors that influence the appropriate and achievable types of interactions between USG and foundations. In Chapter V, we examine innovations in philanthropy in the public and private sectors, highlighting innovative metrics and measures, funding strategies, and administration and governance structures, and suggesting ways in which the innovations might be adopted or adapted by other philanthropic actors. Finally, Chapter VI suggests next steps that could further inform USG-foundation interaction in addressing health and social service needs at home and abroad. Suggested steps build on this exploratory study to develop more knowledge about how partnerships might be employed to enhance the value of philanthropic spending.
The appendices provide additional data and analysis that support the findings and recommendations in the body of the report. Appendix A contains detailed profiles of the nine cases studied. Appendix B is the full literature review, which provided background and an analytic framework for the case studies. Appendix C presents the analysis of public-use and secondary data on USG and foundation spending patterns.