The study relies on three complementary sources of information to explore the interactions between public and private philanthropy in the United States and abroad. First, as background, public-use and secondary data sources were used to estimate total charitable giving and to analyze the distribution of USG and foundation spending on domestic and international health and social services. The analysis examined how aid flows to service sectors, program areas, and geographic regions. Second, MPR conducted a systematic review of the literature on USG and foundation philanthropic approaches. From the literature review, we developed a conceptual framework to explore public-private interactions and developed a focus and method for conducting case studies of selected philanthropic endeavors and organizations.
With the spending information and conceptual framework as background, MPR then examined specific cases of the development and implementation of different models for domestic and international health and social services initiatives, with a special focus on collaboration between the USG and foundation stakeholders. We identified potential cases after conducting a scan of USG and foundation entities, philanthropic initiatives, and tools. Based on selection criteriaincluding the geographic and programmatic area of focus, magnitude of financial contributions, prevalence of the problem addressed, and leadership or innovation statusASPE selected ten cases for inclusion in the study, nine of which were completed (stakeholders in one case declined to participate). Table I.1 presents an overview of the cases. MPR conducted these case studies by reviewing publicly available documents and records and interviewing selected key leaders or experts associated with each case.