The GAVI Alliance is a complex entity consisting of several components:
- The GAVI Alliances board of directors sets strategic vision and direction, makes high-level policy decisions, and approves support for country immunization programs. It is comprised of representatives from multilateral development agencies, donors, developing country governments, civil society representatives, and the academic community.
- The GAVI Fund accepts donations and provides funding. It was established as a U.S. 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization to support immunization in developing countries, including support of the GAVI Alliance.
- As described later, the Alliance and Fund plan to merge in 2009 as a Swiss foundation.
- The International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm) borrows against legally binding aid commitments by donor governments so that funds can be disbursed with optimal timing. The IFFIm, launched in 2006 as a separate entity, was established as a charity in the U.K.
- The GAVI Board is supported by a Secretariat, responsible for day-to-day operations of the Alliance and with offices in Geneva and Washington, D.C. The Secretariat also supports the board of the IFFIm.
GAVIs development and use of innovative mechanisms to fund immunization, along with the evolution of this partnership from informal to more formal status, are aspects of GAVIs functioning most relevant to the current study.