Chapter II provides an overview of the successes and challenges that have marked the development of public and private philanthropy for health and social services in the U.S. and abroad. It focuses on the contexts, practices, and processes that appear to support successful initiatives. It also describes the challenges faced by both public and private philanthropists in planning for and implementing such initiatives, calling attention to the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two sectors. Chapter III specifically addresses research question 1 by examining how foundations and USG agencies identify needs, develop initiatives, and measure progress toward their goals. Chapter IV turns to research question 2, describing existing public-private interactions in the arenas of health and social services in a general sense, and introducing specific examples to illustrate these principles and examine potential models for future initiatives, as indicated in research question 3. Finally, Chapter V presents an analytic framework based on the literature reviewed, which will serve as the foundation for the case studies.