There are multiple, interrelated aspects of the current substance abuse treatment system that limit the market prospects for any new pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. These limitations are apparent in the case studies, were raised by company executives interviewed for this study, and are corroborated by modeling of certain scenarios. Sales of LAAM and naltrexone were restricted by the limited number of heroin and alcohol treatment programs and the limited capacity of these programs. Whereas 25 percent of opiate addicts receive treatment from the methadone maintenance programs, only about 5 percent of those afflicted by alcohol abuse and dependence are in alcohol treatment centers. Distribution of LAAM is restricted to maintenance programs as required by The Narcotic Addict Treatment Act of 1974. Prescription of naltrexone is recommended to be linked to enrollment in comprehensive treatment centers in order to improve patient outcomes. In contrast, because Nicorette, originally a prescription medication, is now an over-the-counter formulation, patients need not visit a treatment center or a provider to obtain treatment, vastly expanding the drug's potential market.
The lack of medical treatment models in substance abuse treatment centers contributes to their being a critical market barrier. Pharmaceutical company executives cited an "anti-medication" climate among the publicly-funded treatment center staff that would severely limit sales of pharmacotherapies through treatment centers. Interviewees indicated that the large number of non-physicians (sometimes referred to as "non-prescribers") at treatment centers often have strong anti-medication sentiments. As noted above, recent surveys that have examined staffing patterns confirm that the substance abuse treatment system involves little or no physician time in the treatment of patients. This observation was confirmed in the LAAM and naltrexone (Trexan) case studies, which found that treatment decisions and funding for heroin addiction are often mediated by state-level substance abuse program administrators who often do not have clinical backgrounds.