The Low-Wage Labor Market: Challenges and Opportunities for Economic Self-Sufficiency. Work as a Stepping Stone for Welfare Recipients: What Is the Evidence? . References


Bartik, Timothy J. 1997.  "Short-Term Employment Persistence for Welfare Recipients:  The Effects of Wages, Industry, Occupation, and Firm Size."  W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Mimeo, June.

Blank, Rebecca M. 1997.  It Takes a Nation:  A New Agenda for Fighting Poverty.  Princeton, N.J.:  Princeton University Press.

Burtless, Gary. 1995a.  "The Case for Randomized Field Trials in Economic and Policy Research."  Journal of Economic Perspectives (Spring):  63-84.

------. 1995b.  "Employment Prospects of Welfare Recipients."  In The Work Alternative:  Welfare Reform and the Realities of the Job Market, edited by Demetra Smith Nightingale and Robert H. Haveman.  Washington D.C.:  Urban Institute Press.

Corcoran, Mary, and Susanna Loeb. 1999.  "Welfare, Work Experience, and Economic Self-Sufficiency."  Mimeo, University of Michigan.

Friedlander, Daniel, and Gary Burtless. 1995.  "Five Years After:  The Long-Term Effects of Welfare-to-Work Programs."  New York:  Russell Sage Foundation.

Gottschalk, Peter. 1997.  "Inequality, Income Growth, and Mobility:  The Basic Facts."  Journal of Economic Perspective  11 (2, Spring): 21-40.

Gueron, Judith M., and Edward Pauly. 1991.  From Welfare to Work.  New York:  Russell Sage Foundation.

Heckman, James J., and Jeffrey A. Smith. 1995.  "Assessing the Case for Social Experiments."  Journal of Economic Perspectives (Spring):  85-110.

Holcomb, Pamela, La Donna Pavetti, Caroline Ratcliffe, and Susan Riedinger. 1998.  Building an Employment Focused Welfare System:  Work First and Other Work-Oriented Strategies in Five States.  The Urban Institute, June.

LeLonde, Robert. 1995.  "The Promise of Public Sector-Sponsored Training Programs."  Journal of Economic Perspectives (Spring):  149-68.

Lennon, Chauncy, and Katherine Newman. 1995.  "Finding Work in the Inner City:  How Hard Is It Now  How Hard Will It Be for AFDC Recipients?"  Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper 76, October.

Loprest, Pamela J. 1992.  "Gender Differences in Wage Growth and Job Mobility."  The American Economic Review, Volume 82, Issue 2.  Papers and proceedings of the 104th annual meeting of the American Economic Association, May.

Moffitt, Robert, and Anuradha Rangarajan. 1989.  "The Effect of Transfer Programmes on Work Effort and Human Capital Formation:  Evidence from the US."  In The Economics of Social Security, edited by Andrew Dilnot and Ian Walker.  London:  Oxford University Press.

Newman, Katherine. 1999.  No Shame in My Game:  The Working Poor in the Inner City.  New York:  Knopf/Russell Sage.

Schiller, Bradley R. 1994.  "Moving Up:  The Training and Wage Gains of Minimum-Wage Entrants."  Social Science Quarterly 75 (3, September):  623-36.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of Education. 1998.  "National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies:  Implementation, Participation Patterns, Costs, and Two-Year Impacts of Portland (Oregon) Welfare-to-Work Program."  Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, May.

U.S. Congress. 1993.  House Committee on Ways and Means.  1993 Green Book:  Overview of Entitlement Programs.  July 7.