The Low-Wage Labor Market: Challenges and Opportunities for Economic Self-Sufficiency. Mismatch in the Low-Wage Labor Market: Job Search Perspective . Footnotes


1.  Blank (1997); Danziger and Gottshalk (1995).

2.  Mishel and Bernstein (1994); Freeman (1994).

3.  Hughes (1995); Holzer (1996); Wilson (1987).

4.  Mier and Giloth (1985).

5.  O'Regan and Quigley (1998).

6.  See, for example, Holzer (1987).

7.  Granovetter (1995).

8.  Ports (1993).

9.  Granovetter (1995).

10.  See Abraham's comments in response to Bishop (1993) regarding how search method choice and effectiveness might be affected by labor market conditions.

11.  Studies that measure offer-to-application ratios are based on surveys of job applicants rather than employers (see, for example, Holzer 1987).  Whereas Holzer's (1996) employer study provides information on applicant-to-hire ratios from the demand side, the data are not disaggregated by search method.  Most employer studies choose to operationalize effectiveness of job search as the method that is "most important" to an employer (e.g., Braddock and McPartland 1987), or the method that was actually used in the case of the most recent hire (e.g., Holzer 1996).

12.  Abraham's response to Bishop (1993), Holzer (1996), and Marsden and Campbell (1988) all discuss these methodological difficulties in greater depth than is presented here.

13.  Holzer (1987); Blau and Robins (1990).

14.  See Falcon and Melendez (1997); Oliver and Lichter (1996); Corcoran, Datcher, and Duncan (1980); Marsden and Campbell (1988); Ullman (1968); Ludwig (1998); Henly (1999).

15.  Waldinger (1997); Kirschenman and Neckerman (1991); Henly (1999).

16.  Waldinger (1997); Kirschenman and Neckerman (1991).

17.  Falcon and Melendez (1997); Oliver and Lichter (1996). For jobs that require a college degree, whites are significantly more likely to be hired than other minorities when informal networks represent the preferred recruitment strategy (Braddock and McPartland 1987).

18.  Ports (1993).

19.  Marsden and Campbell (1988); Holzer (1987).

20.  Holzer (1996); Braddock and McPartland (1987)

21.  Holzer (1987).

22.  Holzer (1996).

23.  Marsden and Campbell (1988).

24.  Braddock and McPartland (1987).

25.  Ports (1993).

26.  Corcoran et al. (1980); Marsden and Campbell (1988). Although job seekers can also advertise their services in media publications, the job search literature on advertisements primarily concerns the posting of advertisements by firms and the response to these advertisements by job seekers.

27.  Holzer (1996); Reingold (1997).

28.  Holzer (1987).

29.  Braddock and McPartland (1987).

30.  Holzer (1996).

31.  Holzer (1996); Marsden and Campbell (1988).

32.  Henly (1999); Newman (1999).

33.  Bishop (1993); Holzer (1996); Marsden and Campbell (1988).

34.  We might expect the use of public employment agencies to fluctuate as the number of job losers eligible for unemployment insurance fluctuates because registration with the public employment agency is mandatory for all eligible job losers who wish to collect unemployment benefits.  Consistent with this reasoning, Ports (1993) reports a decline between 1970 and 1992 in the use of public employment agencies among unemployed job seekers, and suggests that this may be due to the fact that the number of unemployed individuals who are actually eligible for unemployment insurance declined over this period.

35.  Marsden and Campbell (1988); Reingold (1997).

36.  Holzer (1987); Oliver and Lichter (1996); Braddock and McPartland (1987); Valenzuela (1999).

37.  See Lane in this volume for a fuller discussion of job turnover.

38.  See Bishop (1993) for a review of these studies.

39.  Bishop (1993).

40.  Grieco (1987); Stack, forthcoming.

41.  Henly (1999); Granovetter (1995).

42.  Coverdill (1994); Staiger (1990).

43.  Corcoran et al. (1980) .

44.  Bridges and Villemez (1986); Marsden and Hurlbert (1988).

45.  Holzer (1996).

46.  Holzer (1996) notes the ambiguous interpretations of these multi-variate findings.  Rather than recruitment strategies driving wages, it is plausible that employers use particular recruitment methods because they are most likely to target employees of a particular skill level (and which therefore merit a particular wage).

47.  Korneman and Turner (1994); Falcon and Melendez (1997).

48.  Oliver and Lichter (1996); Braddock and McPartland (1987). The relevance of network member status is discussed in depth in Lin, Ensel, and Vaughn (1981).  Also, for a discussion of network heterogeneity, see Granovetter's discussion of 'strong' versus 'weak' ties (1973, 1995).

49.  Braddock and McPartland (1987); Oliver and Lichter (1996).

50.  Braddock and McPartland (1987).

51.  In the job search literature, screening is generally considered as theoretically distinct from recruitment (as a second stage to the hiring process).  However, as is argued herein, search methods may be chosen in part because of the screening function that they serve.

52.  Employers who rely on advertisements can also exercise some control over the type of applicant pool that they draw, by strategically placing advertisements in media outlets with high levels of a preferred audience. Kirschenman and Neckerman (1991) find that Chicago employers, for example, advertise in newspapers whose readerships are over represented by preferred job candidates (either residents of particular neighborhoods or members of preferred ethnic groups).  Thus, advertisements can also play a screening role, although a more limited one than do informal referrals.

53.  See, for example, Grieco (1987), Waldinger (1997a), Kirschenman and Neckerman (1991), Henly (1999).

54.  See Moss and Tilly (1995) for a more elaborate discussion of "soft skills."

55.  Henly (1999).

56.  See Bishop (1993) on the Employment Service and Burtless (1985) on the stigma of vouchers.

57.  Valenzuela (1999).

58.  For a more elaborate discussion of how race and other stereotypic conceptions might affect employer evaluations, see Kirschenman and Neckerman (1991), Moss and Tilly (1995), and Henly (1999).

59.  At least in the U.S., the record is relatively weak. See Rosenbaum, Kariya, Settersten, and Maier (1990) and Osberg (1993) for the experiences of other countries.

60.  Granovetter (1995); Bishop (1993).

61.  Handler and Hasenfeld (1997, 1999)

62.  Leonard (1990).

63.  See Barnow in this volume for more discussions on hiring tax credits.

64.  Lorenz (1995).

65.  See Lorenz (1995) and Katz (1998) for a review of the research on wage subsidies.

66.  Abraham (1993).