Family Structure: In 1979, data were collected on whom respondents lived with at the age of 14. Twenty-eight categories of living arrangements were collapsed into six family structure categories: living with both biological parents, with single mother, with single father, with mother and stepfather, with father and stepmother, and other relatives and/or non-relatives (including institutions). If a mother (father) was living with a man (woman) to whom she (he) is not married, we consider that person a stepfather (stepmother).
Parental Educational Achievement: Highest grade completed was collected for respondents' biological mothers and biological fathers in 1979. Parental educational achievement was broken down into four categories: high school dropout, high school graduate, some college, and college graduate.
Parental Alcohol Problems: The 1988 NLSY79 interview collected family history on alcoholism and problem drinking. Respondents were asked whether they had any relatives who had been alcoholics/problem drinkers at any time, their relationship to the alcoholic relatives, and the number of years they lived with the alcoholic relatives. Based on this information, we created a binary measure of whether a respondent had at least one alcoholic parent whom he/she lived with for at least one year.