The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Appendix E: Regressions of Adult Outcomes on Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Other Independent Variables Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological Parents at Age 14: Effects of Parents' Education

08/01/2001

Summary Table

Note: Results from regressions with no differences by age are not shown.

Parents' Education by Risky Behavior

Health Outcomes Crime Economic Outcomes
Alcohol abuse or dependence Odds Ratios [P-value] Past-month drug use Odds Ratios [P-value] In jail by age 33 Odds Ratios [P-value] Ever in poverty ages 25-29 Odds Ratios [P-value] Years in poverty ages 25-29 Marginal Effects [P-value] Ever on welfare ages 21-33 Odds Ratios [P-value] Years on welfare ages 21-33 Marginal Effects [P-value] Percent Time Employed Marginal Effects [P-value] Age achieved job lasting 2 years Marginal Effects [P-value]

Early Initiators of Alcohol

    N/A N/A N/A   N/A N/A N/A

Mother's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1       1      

High school graduate

1.05 [0.74] 0.88 [0.40]       0.76 [0.19]      

Some college

0.89 [0.60] 1.28 [0.27]       0.71 [0.39]      

College graduate

0.82 [0.44] 1.29 [0.32]       0.69 [0.41]      

Father's Educational Attainment

High school dropouts

1 1       1      

High school graduate

1.11 [0.48] 1.07 [0.67]       0.87 [0.52]      

Some college

1.04 [0.85] 0.83 [0.41]       0.87 [0.66]      

College graduate

1.22 [0.34] 0.88 [0.55]       0.48 [0.07]      

Early Initiators of Marijuana

      N/A          

Mother's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1   0 1 0 0 0

High school graduate

0.98 [0.91] 0.90 [0.48] 1.01 [0.98]   -0.114 [0.01] 0.99 [0.97] -0.199 [0.02] 0.023 [0.00] -1.032 [0.01]

Some college

0.91 [0.65] 1.50 [0.50] 1.83 [0.34]   -0.182 [0.02] 0.61 [0.19] -0.420 [0.00] 0.035 [0.00] -1.338 [0.02]

College graduate

0.68 [0.14] 1.10 [0.54] -   -0.187 [0.04] 0.82 [0.65] -0.548 [0.00] 0.029 [0.01] -0.729 [0.27]

Father's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1   0 1 0 0 0

High school graduate

1.19 [0.22] 1.10 [0.54] 0.69 [0.33]   -0.066 [0.15] 0.57 [0.01] -0.152 [0.08] -0.0004 [0.96] -0.403 [0.31]

Some college

1.17 [0.43] 0.86 [0.50] 1.37 [0.61]   -0.083 [0.22] 0.56 [0.07] -0.208 [0.11] -0.0008 [0.93] 0.029 [0.96]

College graduate

1.42 [0.08] 0.95 [0.82] 0.48 [0.39]   -0.078 [0.29] 0.30 [0.00] -0.346 [0.01] 0.012 [0.19] -0.366 [0.51]

Early Initiators of Cocaine

N/A                

Mother's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

  1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

High school graduate

  0.86 [0.60] 1.94 [0.33] 0.89 [0.91] -0.296 [0.04] 0.50 [0.11] -0.755 [0.02] 0.040 [0.09] -2.071 [0.39]

Some college

  1.50 [0.33] 1.85 [0.69] 0.73 [0.85] -0.572 [0.02] 0.73 [0.65] -0.664 [0.15] 0.054 [0.16] 0.444 [0.92]

College graduate

  1.59 [0.31] - - -0.324 [0.23] 0.85 [0.84] -0.205 [0.71] 0.036 [0.39] -2.869 [0.55]

Father's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

  1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

High school graduate

  0.99 [0.97] 0.46 [0.26] 0.36 [0.31] -0.365 [0.01] 0.52 [0.15] -0.516 [0.09] -0.026 [0.28] 3.251 [0.17]

Some college

  0.60 [0.22] 0.20 [0.21] 1.08 [0.96] 0.023 [0.91] 1.13 [0.84] 0.070 [0.87] -0.024 [0.48] 5.263 [0.27]

College graduate

  0.48 [0.09] 0.65 [0.76] - -0.017 [0.94] 0.54 [0.39] -0.549 [0.26] -0.020 [0.58] -1.169 [0.80]

Early Initiators of Sex

Mother's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

High school graduate

1.07 [0.58] 0.91 [0.55] 0.99 [0.96] 0.59 [0.01] -0.162 [0.00] 0.87 [0.25] -0.244 [0.01] 0.027 [0.05] -1.133 [0.00]

Some college

0.87 [0.51] 1.45 [0.13] 0.63 [0.39] 0.86 [0.68] -0.121 [0.10] 0.85 [0.48] -0.109 [0.51] 0.032 [0.19] -0.678 [0.24]

College graduate

0.68 [0.13] 1.12 [0.71] 0.19 [0.12] 0.68 [0.47] -0.356 [0.00] 0.64 [0.12] -0.586 [0.01] -0.007 [0.83] -1.249 [0.06]

Father's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

High school graduate

1.18 [0.20] 1.02 [0.93] 0.54 [0.02] 0.77 [0.20] -0.109 [0.01] 0.68 [0.00] -0.219 [0.02] -0.004 [0.78] -0.550 [0.12]

Some college

1.07 [0.72] 0.94 [0.79] 1.11 [0.79] 0.82 [0.56] -0.088 [0.19] 0.87 [0.46] -0.187 [0.21] -0.004 [0.78] 0.345 [0.51]

College graduate

1.41 [0.07] 1.04 [0.87] 0.63 [0.39] 0.43 [0.05] -0.132 [0.09] 0.48 [0.00] -0.672 [0.00] 0.039 [0.11] -0.404 [0.46]

Committed 9+ Crimes /Delinquencies in 1980

Mother's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

High school graduate

1.11 [0.68] 0.92 [0.59] 1.00 [1.00] 0.51 [0.01] -0.172 [0.03] 0.83 [0.49] -0.175 [0.27] 0.012 [0.40] -1.376 [0.00]

Some college

1.04 [0.93] 1.38 [0.18] 1.19 [0.81] 0.87 [0.75] -0.095 [0.49] 0.72 [0.47] -0.126 [0.66] 0.022 [0.33] -1.067 [0.03]

College graduate

0.90 [0.81] 1.26 [0.41] - 0.34 [0.05] -0.411 [0.02] 0.65 [0.43] -0.554 [0.12] 0.010 [0.70] -1.318 [0.02]

Father's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

High school graduate

1.02 [0.95] 0.92 [0.60] 0.66 [0.36] 0.90 [0.70] -0.090 [0.27] 0.61 [0.06] -0.278 [0.10] 0.002 [0.89] -0.144 [0.65]

Some college

0.90 [0.80] 0.78 [0.30] 0.99 [0.99] 0.77 [0.57] -0.167 [0.23] 0.86 [0.72] -0.424 [0.11] 0.029 [0.18] 0.239 [0.60]

College graduate

1.92 [0.07] 0.70 [0.15] 1.28 [0.70] 1.25 [0.58] 0.012 [0.92] 0.77 [0.53] -0.291 [0.27] 0.022 [0.28] -0.250 [0.59]
Probabilities Of Marital and Fertility Outcomes From Multi-Logistic Regressions Among Early Sex Initiators Living With Both Biological Parents At Age 14 by Parental Educational Attainment

Marital and Fertility Outcome at age 33

Mother's Educational Attainment Father's Educational Attainment
High school dropout High school graduate Some college College and up High school dropout High school graduate Some college College and up

Never married without children

0.106 0.117 0.114 0.109 0.104 0.113 0.103 0.132

Never married with children

0.098 0.090 0.096 0.048 0.110 0.095 0.088 0.084

Married without children

0.089 0.098 0.099 0.137 0.093 0.089 0.102 0.111

Married with children

0.442 0.433 0.483 0.488 0.439 0.453 0.426 0.445

Married but divorced without children

0.049 0.063 0.069 0.040 0.049 0.056 0.078 0.049

Married but divorced with children

0.217 0.199 0.139 0.179 0.206 0.193 0.203 0.179
Probabilities Of Marital and Fertility Outcomes From Multi-Logistic Regressions Among Those Who Committed 9 or More Crimes/Delinquencies In 1980 Living With Both Biological Parents At Age 14 by Parental Educational Attainment

Marital and Fertility Outcome at age 33

Mother's Educational Attainment Father's Educational Attainment
High school dropout High school graduate Some college College and up High school dropout High school graduate Some college College and up

Never married without children

0.138 0.156 0.166 0.176 0.139 0.165 0.139 0.160

Never married with children

0.104 0.079 0.096 0.060 0.106 0.105 0.096 0.064

Married without children

0.106 0.106 0.116 0.139 0.098 0.100 0.116 0.133

Married with children

0.430 0.445 0.427 0.425 0.430 0.414 0.430 0.478

Married but divorced without children

0.045 0.056 0.059 0.054 0.052 0.051 0.067 0.039

Married but divorced with children

0.177 0.157 0.135 0.146 0.173 0.164 0.152 0.125
E1. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Alcohol Abuse or Dependence Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological Parents At Age 14
Independent Variables Alcohol Abuse or Dependence
Early initiators
of alcohol at 
ages 11-17
Early initiators
of marijuana at
ages 11-19
Early initiators of sex at age s 11-19 Committed 9 + crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of observations

2379 2370 3435 565

Age of alcohol initiation

Early Initiators

- 1 1 1

Else

- 0.55 [0.00] 0.51 [0.00] 0.59 [0.00]

Age of marijuana initiation

Early Initiators

1 - 1 1

Else

0.55 [0.00] - 0.49 [0.00] 0.81 [0.38]

Age of cocaine initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 1 1

Else

0.83 [0.61] 0.88 [0.71] 0.98 [0.95] 0.49 [0.21]

Age of sex initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 - 1

Else

0.80 [0.23] 0.77 [0.18] - 0.32 [0.03]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

Committed 9 or more

1 1 1 -

Else

0.59 [0.00] 0.62 [0.00] 0.56 [0.00] -

Sex

Male

2.22 [0.00] 1.91 [0.00] 2.35 [0.00] 2.03 [0.01]

Female

1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

       

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1

Black

0.81 [0.20] 0.89 [0.48] 0.94 [0.64] 0.86 [0.61]

Hispanic

0.88 [0.44] 0.93 [0.67] 0.98 [0.87] 1.13 [0.67]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.89 [0.56] 0.91 [0.65] 0.90 [0.54] 0.75 [0.39]

Some college and up

0.70 [0.08] 0.68 [0.06] 0.98 [0.87] 0.53 [0.08]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.97 [0.02] 0.96 [0.01] 0.96 [0.00] 0.99 [0.64]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.43 [0.01] 1.33 [0.03] 1.42 [0.00] 1.58 [0.05]

No

1 1 1 1

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.05 [0.74] 0.98 [0.91] 1.07 [0.58] 1.11 [0.68]

Some college

0.89 [0.60] 0.91 [0.65] 0.87 [0.51] 1.04 [0.93]

College graduate

0.82 [0.44] 0.68 [0.14] 0.68 [0.13] 0.90 [0.81]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.11 [0.48] 1.19 [0.22] 1.18 [0.20] 1.02 [0.95]

Some college

1.04 [0.85] 1.17 [0.43] 1.07 [0.72] 0.90 [0.80]

College graduate

1.22 [0.34] 1.42 [0.08] 1.41 [0.07] 1.92 [0.07]
E2. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Past-month Drug Use Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological Parents At Age 14

Independent Variables

Adult Drug Use
Early initiators of alcohol at ages 11-19 Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-19 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-19 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 1+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of observations

3565 2325 479 2264 2651

Age of alcohol initiation

Early Initiators

- 1 1 1 1

Else

- 0.71 [0.20] 0.71 [0.62] 0.57 [0.05] 0.65 [0.10]

Age of marijuana initiation

Early Initiators

1 - 1 1 1

Else

0.27 [0.00] - 0.54 [0.23] 0.33 [0.00] 0.32 [0.00]

Age of cocaine initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 - 1 1

Else

0.44 [0.00] 0.45 [0.00] - 0.41 [0.00] 0.41 [0.00]

Age of sex initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 1 - 1

Else

0.54 [0.00] 0.61 [0.00] 0.43 [0.01] - 0.59 [0.00]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

Committed 9+

1 1 1 1 -

Else

0.58 [0.00] 0.66 [0.01] 0.59 [0.08] 0.61 [0.00] -

Sex

Male

1.36 [0.01] 1.34 [0.02] 1.12 [0.64] 1.35 [0.04] 1.27 [0.07]

Female

1 1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1 1

Black

1.00 [0.98] 0.93 [0.68] 0.88 [0.70] 1.01 [0.93] 1.04 [0.79]

Hispanic

0.61 [0.01] 0.66 [0.03] 0.47 [0.04] 0.58 [0.01] 0.56 [0.01]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.07 [0.77] 1.21 [0.41] 1.11 [0.80] 1.13 [0.60] 1.20 [0.42]

Some college and up

0.89 [0.60] 0.94 [0.79] 0.92 [0.84] 0.87 [0.57] 0.99 [0.95]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.98 [0.30] 0.98 [0.30] 0.96 [0.15] 0.98 [0.33] 0.98 [0.27]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.23 [0.14] 1.27 [0.09] 1.26 [0.35] 1.07 [0.70] 1.07 [0.66]

No

1 1 1 1 1

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.88 [0.40] 0.90 [0.48] 0.86 [0.60] 0.91 [0.55] 0.92 [0.59]

Some college

1.28 [0.27] 1.50 [0.50] 1.50 [0.33] 1.45 [0.13] 1.38 [0.18]

College graduate

1.29 [0.32] 1.10 [0.54] 1.59 [0.31] 1.12 [0.71] 1.26 [0.41]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.07 [0.67] 1.10 [0.54] 0.99 [0.97] 1.02 [0.93] 0.92 [0.60]

Some college

0.83 [0.41] 0.86 [0.50] 0.60 [0.22] 0.94 [0.79] 0.78 [0.30]

College graduate

0.88 [0.55] 0.95 [0.82] 0.48 [0.09] 1.04 [0.87] 0.70 [0.15]
E3. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Ever Being in Jail Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological Parents At Age 14

Independent Variables

Ever in Jail by Age 33
Early initiators 
of marijuana at ages11-15
Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-15 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-19 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of observations

804 181 2313 516
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 1 1 1 1
Else 0.66 [0.21] 0.80 [0.74] 1.00 [1.00] 0.81 [0.58]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators - 1 1 1
Else - 0.61 [0.49] 0.50 [0.00] 0.57 [0.13]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 1 - 1 1
Else 0.45 [0.03] - 0.49 [0.03] 0.57 [0.25]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 1 1 - 1
Else 0.63 [0.42] 4.11 [0.18] - 0.80 [0.67]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9+ 1 1 1 -
Else 0.45 [0.02] 0.66 [0.51] 0.52 [0.00] -
Sex
Male 5.28 [0.00] 8.17 [0.02] 5.56 [0.00] 6.61 [0.00]
Female 1 1 1 1
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 1 1 1 1
Black 10.08 [0.00] 10.93 [0.00] 4.53 [0.00] 5.91 [0.00]
Hispanic 2.20 [0.08] 3.87 [0.08] 1.58 [0.14] 1.28 [0.64]
Educational attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.54 [0.13] 1.10 [0.90] 0.56 [0.02] 0.31 [0.01]

Some college and up

0.23 [0.01] 0.27 [0.18] 0.32 [0.00] 0.17 [0.00]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale 0.91 [0.03] 0.82 [0.02] 0.92 [0.00] 0.94 [0.17]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 1.62 [0.17] 0.74 [0.66] 1.40 [0.17] 2.11 [0.06]
No 1 1 1 1
Mother's Education Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 1.01 [0.98] 1.94 [0.33] 0.99 [0.96] 1.00 [1.00]
Some college 1.83 [0.34] 1.85 [0.69] 0.63 [0.39] 1.19 [0.81]
College graduate - - 0.19 [0.12] -
Father's Education Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.69 [0.33] 0.46 [0.26] 0.54 [0.02] 0.66 [0.36]
Some college 1.37 [0.61] 0.20 [0.21] 1.11 [0.79] 0.99 [0.99]
College graduate 0.48 [0.39] 0.65 [0.76] 0.63 [0.39] 1.28 [0.70]
E4. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Ever Being in Poverty Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological Parents At Age 14
Independent Variables Ever in Poverty between ages 25-29
Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-15 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-15 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Number of observations 53 849 565
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 1 1 1
Else 0.35 [0.42] 0.90 [0.59] 1.17 [0.55]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators 1 1 1
Else 0.99 [1.00] 0.69 [0.04] 0.89 [0.62]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators - 1 1
Else - 1.14 [0.76] 1.09 [0.92]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 1 - 1
Else 1.49 [0.68] - 0.97 [0.27]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9+ 1 1 -
Else 2.26 [0.41] 0.91 [0.65] -
Sex
Male 1.17 [0.86] 0.44 [0.00] 0.81 [0.40]
Female 1 1 1
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 1 1 1
Black 1.25 [0.82] 3.06 [0.00] 2.86 [0.00]
Hispanic 1.47 [0.75] 1.81 [0.02] 1.28 [0.42]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.40 [0.42] 0.48 [0.00] 0.40 [0.01]
Some college and up 1.36 [0.84] 0.28 [0.00] 0.31 [0.00]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale 0.87 [0.19] 3.06 [0.00] 0.95 [0.07]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 1.50 [0.66] 1.38 [0.12] 1.74 [0.03]
No 1 1 1
Mother's Education Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.89 [0.91] 0.59 [0.01] 0.51 [0.01]
Some college 0.73 [0.85] 0.86 [0.68] 0.87 [0.75]
College graduate - 0.68 [0.47] 0.34 [0.05]
Father's Education Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.36 [0.31] 0.77 [0.20] 0.90 [0.70]
Some college 1.08 [0.96] 0.82 [0.56] 0.77 [0.57]
College graduate - 0.43 [0.05] 1.25 [0.58]
E5. Marginal Effects from Negative Binomial Regressions of Years Being in Poverty Among Early Initiators and Living With Both Biological Parents At Age 14
Independent Variables Years in Poverty between ages 25-29
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-17 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-17 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of observations

1801 201 2289 556
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 0 0
Else 0.064 [0.12] 0.163 [0.35] 0.030 [0.41] -0.023 [0.77]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators - 0 0 0
Else - 0.009 [0.97] -0.053 [0.15] -0.060 [0.40]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 0 - 0 0
Else -0.097 [0.09] - -0.109 [0.09] -0.029 [0.79]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 - 0
Else -0.078 [0.07] -0.168 [0.33] - 0.120 [0.13]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9+ 0 0 0 -
Else -0.072 [0.12] -0.009 [0.96] -0.044 [0.36] -
Sex
Male -0.199 [0.00] -0.195 [0.22] -0.327 [0.00] -0.122 [0.16]
Female 0 0 0 0
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 0 0 0 0
Black 0.503 [0.00] 0.120 [0.58] 0.456 [0.00] 0.544 [0.00]
Hispanic 0.101 [0.10] 0.291 [0.28] 0.121 [0.05] 0.037 [0.72]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.180 [0.00] -0.356 [0.04] -0.231 [0.00] -0.225 [0.02]
Some college and up -0.302 [0.00] -0.291 [0.28] -0.380 [0.00] -0.342 [0.00]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale -0.015 [0.00] -0.023 [0.14] -0.017 [0.00] -0.022 [0.01]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 0.071 [0.09] 0.078 [0.57] 0.060 [0.14] 0.081 [0.29]
No 0 0 0 0
Mother's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.114 [0.01] -0.296 [0.04] -0.162 [0.00] -0.172 [0.03]
Some college -0.182 [0.02] -0.572 [0.02] -0.121 [0.10] -0.095 [0.49]
College graduate -0.187 [0.04] -0.324 [0.23] -0.356 [0.00] -0.411 [0.02]
Father's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.066 [0.15] -0.365 [0.01] -0.109 [0.01] -0.090 [0.27]
Some college -0.083 [0.22] 0.023 [0.91] -0.088 [0.19] -0.167 [0.23]
College graduate -0.078 [0.29] -0.017 [0.94] -0.132 [0.09] 0.012 [0.92]
E6. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Ever Being on Welfare Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological Parents At Age 14

Independent Variables

Ever on Welfare Between Ages 21-33
Early initiators of alcohol at ages 11-15 Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-17 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-15 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Number of observations 803 897 202 2313 565
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators - 1 1 1 1
Else - 0.99 [0.97] 1.04 [0.92] 0.82 [0.12] 0.98 [0.92]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators 1 - 1 1 1
Else 1.05 [0.82] - 0.97 [0.93] 0.95 [0.65] 0.64 [0.06]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 1 1 - 1 1
Else 0.65 [0.13] 0.70 [0.11] - 0.72 [0.09] 0.89 [0.74]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 1 1 1 - 1
Else 0.55 [0.01] 0.73 [0.15] 0.44 [0.14] - 0.47 [0.01]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9+ 1 1 1 1 -
Else 0.84 [0.41] 0.59 [0.01] 0.78 [0.56] 0.69 [0.01] -
Sex
Male 0.47 [0.00] 0.48 [0.00] 0.63 [0.13] 0.31 [0.00] 0.38 [0.00]
Female 1 1 1 1 1
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 1 1 1 1 1
Black 2.12 [0.00] 3.14 [0.00] 2.07 [0.16] 2.56 [0.00] 3.18 [0.00]
Hispanic 1.41 [0.15] 1.44 [0.11] 0.89 [0.83] 1.29 [0.09] 2.04 [0.02]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.63 [0.07] 0.52 [0.01] 0.31 [0.03] 0.54 [0.00] 0.38 [0.00]
Some college and up 0.19 [0.00] 0.37 [0.00] 0.14 [0.00] 0.27 [0.00] 0.22 [0.00]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale 0.95 [0.05] 1.00 [0.90] 0.98 [0.67] 0.98 [0.08] 0.98 [0.58]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 1.36 [0.15] 1.81 [0.00] 3.02 [0.00] 1.50 [0.00] 2.03 [0.01]
No 1 1 1 1 1
Mother's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.76 [0.19] 0.99 [0.97] 0.50 [0.11] 0.87 [0.25] 0.83 [0.49]
Some college 0.71 [0.39] 0.61 [0.19] 0.73 [0.65] 0.85 [0.48] 0.72 [0.47]
College graduate 0.69 [0.41] 0.82 [0.65] 0.85 [0.84] 0.64 [0.12] 0.65 [0.43]
Father's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.87 [0.52] 0.57 [0.01] 0.52 [0.15] 0.68 [0.00] 0.61 [0.06]
Some college 0.87 [0.66] 0.56 [0.07] 1.13 [0.84] 0.87 [0.46] 0.86 [0.72]
College graduate 0.48 [0.07] 0.30 [0.00] 0.54 [0.39] 0.48 [0.00] 0.77 [0.53]
E7. Marginal Effects from Negative Binomial Regressions of Years Being on Welfare Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological parents At Age 14

Independent Variables

Years on Welfare Between Ages 21-33
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-17 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-17 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Number of observations 1815 202 2313 565
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 0 0
Else -0.096 [0.24] -0.076 [0.79] -0.168 [0.08] -0.159 [0.29]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators - 0 0 0
Else - 0.067 [0.88] -0.060 [0.45] -0.290 [0.05]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 0 - 0 0
Else -0.174 [0.13] - -0.215 [0.15] -0.181 [0.44]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 - 0
Else -0.313 [0.00] -0.652 [0.08] - -0.192 [0.24]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9+ 0 0 0 -
Else -0.002 [0.98] -0.152 [0.66] -0.194 [0.06] -
Sex
Male -0.730 [0.00] -0.714 [0.04] -1.303 [0.00] -0.510 [0.03]
Female 0 0 0 0
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 0 0 0 0
Black 0.941 [0.00] 0.636 [0.29] 0.723 [0.00] 1.022 [0.01]
Hispanic 0.257 [0.05] 0.550 [0.32] 0.144 [0.26] 0.414 [0.16]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.523 [0.00] -0.670 [0.07] -0.522 [0.00] -0.530 [0.02]
Some college and up -0.757 [0.00] -1.141 [0.01] -0.904 [0.00] -0.769 [0.00]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale -0.026 [0.01] -0.031 [0.37] -0.027 [0.01] -0.032 [0.08]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 0.332 [0.00] 0.495 [0.09] 0.286 [0.00] 0.439 [0.01]
No 0 0 0 0
Mother's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.199 [0.02] -0.755 [0.02] -0.244 [0.01] -0.175 [0.27]
Some college -0.420 [0.00] -0.664 [0.15] -0.109 [0.51] -0.126 [0.66]
College graduate -0.548 [0.00] -0.205 [0.71] -0.586 [0.01] -0.554 [0.12]
Father's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.152 [0.08] -0.516 [0.09] -0.219 [0.02] -0.278 [0.10]
Some college -0.208 [0.11] 0.070 [0.87] -0.187 [0.21] -0.424 [0.11]
College graduate -0.346 [0.01] -0.549 [0.26] -0.672 [0.00] -0.291 [0.27]
E8. Marginal effects from OLS Regressions of Percent Time Employed Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological parents At Age 14

Independent Variables

Percent Time Employed Since Leaving School
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-19 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-17 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-15 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Number of observations 2360 201 842 565
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 0 0
Else -0.005 [0.62] 0.031 [0.50] -0.019 [0.28] -0.063[0.01]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators - 0 0 0
Else - -0.025 [0.54] 0.011 [0.38] 0.010 [0.43]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 0 - 0 0
Else 0.015 [0.10] - 0.023 [0.25] -0.002 [0.90]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 - 0
Else 0.019 [0.00] 0.023 [0.28] - 0.013 [0.31]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9+ 0 0 0 -
Else 0.014 [0.04] -0.013 [0.54] 0.016 [0.28] -
Sex
Male 0.011 [0.04] 0.019 [0.36] 0.041 [0.00] -0.000 [1.00]
Female 0 0 0 0
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 0 0 0 0
Black -0.095 [0.00] -0.062 [0.04] -0.098 [0.00] -0.100 [0.00]
Hispanic -0.005 [0.54] -0.032 [0.27] -0.019 [0.28] -0.019 [0.26]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate 0.061 [0.00] 0.042 [0.18] 0.056 [0.00] 0.026 [0.19]
Some college and up 0.085 [0.00] 0.112 [0.00] 0.078 [0.00] 0.046 [0.03]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale 0.002 [0.02] 0.0002 [0.93] 0.004 [0.02] 0.001 [0.69]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes -0.010 [0.12] 0.001 [0.96] -0.001 [0.93] -0.015 [0.26]
No 0 0 0 0
Mother's Educational Attainment
High shool dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate 0.023 [0.00] 0.040 [0.09] 0.027 [0.05] 0.012 [0.40]
Some college 0.035 [0.00] 0.054 [0.16] 0.032 [0.19] 0.022 [0.33]
College graduate 0.029 [0.01] 0.036 [0.39] -0.007 [0.83] 0.010 [0.70]
Father's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.0004 [0.96] -0.026 [0.28] -0.004 [0.78] 0.002 [0.89]
Some college -0.0008 [0.93] -0.024 [0.48] -0.004 [0.78] 0.029 [0.18]
College graduate 0.012 [0.19] -0.020 [0.58] 0.039 [0.11] 0.022 [0.28]
E9. Marginal Effects from Weibull Regressions of Age when Reached 2 Years of Tenure Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological parents At Age 14

Independent Variables

Age Reached Two Years Job Tenure
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-17 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-15 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 1+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Number of observations 1687 43 2110 2514
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 0 0
Else 0.689 [0.04] -1.538 [0.62] 1.006 [0.00] 0.496 [0.06]
Age of marijuana initiation  
Early Initiators - 0 0 0
Else - -0.541 [0.88] -0.655 [0.03] -0.629 [0.02]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 0 - 0 0
Else -2.158 [0.03] - -2.501 [0.02] -2.015 [0.04]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 - 0
Else -1.658 [0.00] -10.321 [0.01] - -1.255 [0.00]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed more 0 0 0 -
Else -0.608 [0.09] 0.440 [0.88] -0.008 [0.98] -
Sex
Male -0.677 [0.04] -1.325 [0.65] -0.938 [0.00] -0.712 [0.01]
Female 0 0 0 0
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 0 0 0 0
Black 2.105 [0.00] -1.548 [0.52] 1.175 [0.00] 1.506 [0.00]
Hispanic 0.772 [0.08] -0.707 [0.80] 0.350 [0.41] 0.681 [0.07]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.754 [0.21] 0.611 [0.84] -0.492 [0.33] -1.030 [0.03]
Some college and up -0.441 [0.49] 0.922 [0.79] -0.152 [0.78] -0.603 [0.02]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale 0.024 [0.54] -0.189 [0.56] -0.065 [0.08] -0.022 [0.49]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 1.434 [0.00] 1.598 [0.61] 0.146 [0.69] 0.916 [0.00]
No 0 0 0 0
Mother's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -1.032 [0.01] -2.071 [0.39] -1.133 [0.00] -1.376 [0.00]
Some college -1.338 [0.02] 0.444 [0.92] -0.678 [0.24] -1.067 [0.03]
College graduate -0.729 [0.27] -2.869 [0.55] -1.249 [0.06] -1.318 [0.02]
Father's Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.403 [0.31] 3.251 [0.17] -0.550 [0.12] -0.144 [0.65]
Some college 0.029 [0.96] 5.263 [0.27] 0.345 [0.51] 0.239 [0.60]
College graduate -0.366 [0.51] -1.169 [0.80] -0.404 [0.46] -0.250 [0.59]
E10. Relative Risk Ratios from Multinomial logistic Regression of Adult Marital and Fertility Status at age 33 Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological parents At Age 14

Independent Variables

Adult Family Formation
Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17
Never married without children Never married with children Married without children Married but divorced without children Married but divorced with children

Number of observations = 2222

Age of alcohol initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

0.92 [0.67] 1.34 [0.24] 1.50 [0.06] 1.04 [0.85] 0.79 [0.12]

18-19

1.18 [0.45] 1.87 [0.02] 1.65 [0.05] 0.96 [0.88] 0.96 [0.83]

not by 19

0.96 [0.87] 1.05 [0.88] 1.39 [0.29] 0.68 [0.34] 0.68 [0.08]

Age of marijuana initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.22 [0.30] 0.76 [0.26] 1.07 [0.76] 0.66 [0.14] 0.93 [0.67]

18-19

1.02 [0.95] 0.66 [0.18] 0.93 [0.78] 1.18 [0.61] 0.84 [0.42]

not by 19

1.06 [0.77] 1.03 [0.91] 0.91 [0.68] 0.87 [0.60] 0.80 [0.18]

Age of cocaine initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.68 [0.40] 0.61 [0.53] 6.77 [0.08] 0.81 [0.79] 2.32 [0.16]

18-19

1.46 [0.52] 1.00 [1.00] 3.86 [0.21] 0.94 [0.93] 1.51 [0.47]

not by 19

0.64 [0.43] 0.51 [0.27] 2.21 [0.46] 0.50 [0.30] 1.27 [0.67]

Age of sex initiation

11-15

- - - - -

16-17

- - - - -

18-19

- - - - -

not by 19

- - - - -

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

9+

1 1 1 1 1

3-8

0.80 [0.30] 0.54 [0.01] 1.07 [0.76] 1.34 [0.33] 1.01 [0.96]

1-2

0.92 [0.71] 0.50 [0.01] 0.93 [0.80] 1.27 [0.45] 0.95 [0.78]

0

0.76 [0.22] 1.03 [0.91] 0.91 [0.68] 0.91 [0.78] 0.83 [0.33]

Sex

Male

2.01 [0.00] 0.87 [0.42] 1.26 [0.18] 0.65 [0.04] 0.54 [0.00]

Female

1 1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1 1

Black

1.65 [0.00] 12.11 [0.00] 0.61 [0.03] 0.62 [0.09] 0.87 [0.38]

Hispanic

0.75 [0.22] 2.03 [0.02] 0.75 [0.24] 0.84 [0.55] 0.81 [0.22]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.38 [0.28] 0.82 [0.44] 1.11 [0.77] 1.28 [0.54] 1.02 [0.94]

Some college and up

2.59 [0.00] 0.72 [0.25] 3.04 [0.00] 1.58 [0.28] 0.83 [0.39]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.97 [0.14] 0.98 [0.29] 1.00 [0.87] 1.04 [0.28] 1.04 [0.02]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.05 [0.81] 1.30 [0.19] 0.72 [0.13] 0.71 [0.20] 1.02 [0.87]

No

1 1 1 1 1

Mother's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.14 [0.46] 0.92 [0.66] 1.14 [0.53] 1.32 [0.27] 0.93 [0.61]

Some college

1.00 [1.00] 0.89 [0.76] 1.03 [0.92] 1.30 [0.49] 0.58 [0.05]

College graduate

0.93 [0.83] 0.40 [0.09] 1.44 [0.26] 0.75 [0.56] 0.74 [0.31]

Father's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.06 [0.74] 0.82 [0.32] 0.94 [0.75] 1.13 [0.64] 0.91 [0.50]

Some college

1.02 [0.95] 0.78 [0.50] 1.16 [0.60] 1.68 [0.11] 1.02 [0.93]

College graduate

1.27 [0.37] 0.72 [0.41] 1.21 [0.49] 1.00 [1.00] 0.85 [0.50]

Independent Variables

Adult Family Formation
Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Never married without children Never married with children Married without children Married but divorced without children Married but divorced with children

Number of observations = 2608

Age of alcohol initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

0.87 [0.39] 1.37 [0.20] 1.19 [0.33] 0.80 [0.34] 0.78 [0.11]

18-19

1.07 [0.71] 1.68 [0.06] 1.16 [0.47] 0.93 [0.79] 0.88 [0.48]

not by 19

1.10 [0.66] 1.05 [0.88] 1.13 [0.65] 0.70 [0.34] 0.81 [0.35]

Age of marijuana initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

0.98 [0.92] 0.81 [0.38] 1.06 [0.77] 0.93 [0.78] 0.97 [0.88]

18-19

0.90 [0.63] 0.51 [0.04] 0.97 [0.89] 1.35 [0.32] 0.88 [0.56]

not by 19

0.78 [0.15] 0.71 [0.16] 0.86 [0.46] 0.90 [0.70] 0.82 [0.23]

Age of cocaine initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

2.31 [0.20] 0.79 [0.75] 3.32 [0.15] 1.08 [0.92] 2.64 [0.10]

18-19

1.99 [0.27] 0.84 [0.79] 2.18 [0.34] 0.89 [0.87] 1.28 [0.67]

not by 19

0.92 [0.89] 0.45 [0.18] 1.35 [0.70] 0.46 [0.25] 1.44 [0.50]

Age of sex initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.12 [0.52] 0.63 [0.02] 1.00 [0.98] 1.28 [0.35] 0.69 [0.02]

18-19

1.58 [0.02] 0.51 [0.01] 1.13 [0.59] 0.82 [0.52] 0.48 [0.00]

not by 19

2.59 [0.00] 0.31 [0.00] 1.50 [0.10] 0.89 [0.75] 0.26 [0.00]

Sex

Male

1.58 [0.00] 0.79 [0.21] 1.26 [0.11] 0.63 [0.02] 0.53 [0.00]

Female

1 1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1 1

Black

2.16 [0.00] 11.74 [0.00] 0.98 [0.91] 0.76 [0.33] 0.78 [0.14]

Hispanic

0.87 [0.47] 1.85 [0.02] 0.84 [0.40] 0.79 [0.39] 0.81 [0.20]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.12 [0.67] 0.63 [0.07] 1.44 [0.34] 0.81 [0.57] 0.93 [0.74]

Some college and up

1.66 [0.06] 0.54 [0.03] 3.17 [0.00] 1.06 [0.87] 0.72 [0.14]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.94 [0.00] 0.93 [0.00] 1.00 [0.83] 1.01 [0.74] 1.02 [0.23]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.14 [0.40] 1.29 [0.21] 0.67 [0.04] 0.83 [0.45] 1.10 [0.23]

No

1 1 1 1 1

Mother's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.10 [0.54] 0.69 [0.06] 0.98 [0.90] 1.21 [0.42] 0.84 [0.24]

Some college

1.24 [0.38] 0.91 [0.80] 1.12 [0.66] 1.32 [0.44] 0.75 [0.27]

College graduate

1.31 [0.31] 0.52 [0.21] 1.37 [0.26] 1.22 [0.64] 0.81 [0.47]

Father's Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.25 [0.17] 1.03 [0.90] 1.06 [0.76] 1.01 [0.97] 0.98 [0.90]
Some college 1.00 [0.99] 0.87 [0.69] 1.20 [0.46] 1.30 [0.39] 0.87 [0.54]

College graduate

1.05 [0.84] 0.49 [0.10] 1.26 [0.33] 0.68 [0.27] 0.63 [0.06]