The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Appendix D: Regressions of Adult Outcomes on Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Other Independent Variables Among Early Initiators: Effects of Family Structure

08/01/2001

Note: Results from regressions with no differences by age are not shown.

Summary Table

Family Type by Risky Behavior

Health Outcomes Crime Outcome Economic Outcomes
Alcohol abuse or dependence Odds Ratios [P-value] Past-month drug use Odds Ratios [P-value] In jail by age 33 Odds Ratios [P-value] Ever in poverty ages 25-29 Odds Ratios [P-value] Years in poverty ages 25-29 Marginal Effects [P-value] Ever on welfare ages 21-33 Odds Ratios [P-value] Years on welfare ages 21-33 Marginal Effects [P-value] Percent Time Employed Marginal Effects [P-value] Age achieved job lasting 2 years Marginal Effects [P-value]

Early Initiators of Alcohol

Both biological parents

1 1 N/A N/A N/A 1 N/A N/A N/A

Single mother

0.75 [0.07] 0.91 [0.55]       0.92 [0.70]      

Single father

0.94 [0.88] 0.85 [0.73]       2.31 [0.10]      

Mother and stepfather

0.99 [0.97] 1.29 [0.17]       1.88 [0.03]      

Father and stepmother

0.54 [0.15] 0.66 [0.36]       3.17 [0.04]      

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.08 [0.82] 1.33 [0.38]       2.10 [0.09]      

Early Initiators of Marijuana

Both biological parents

1 1 1 N/A 0 1 0 0 0

Single mother

0.79 [0.12] 0.63 [0.04] 0.95 [0.88]   0.108 [0.03] 1.11 [0.56] 0.165 [0.12] -0.011 [0.15] 0.134 [0.75]

Single father

0.91 [0.83] 0.81 [0.20] 1.26 [0.78]   0.174 [0.22] 1.81 [0.29] 0.097 [0.75] -0.038 [0.11] 1.114 [0.34]

Mother and stepfather

0.84 [0.38] 0.76 [0.59] 1.10 [0.82]   0.172 [0.22] 2.00 [0.00] 0.297 [0.03] -0.022 [0.04] 0.867 [0.11]

Father and stepmother

0.54 [0.14] 1.12 [0.56] 1.05 [0.96]   0.034 [0.79] 1.54 [0.36] 0.498 [0.05] -0.026 [0.16] 1.811 [0.08]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.33 [0.38] 1.15 [0.70] 0.96 [0.96]   0.246 [0.03] 1.78 [0.14] 0.582 [0.01] -0.035 [0.05] 1.526 [0.12]

Early Initiators of Cocaine

Both biological parents

N/A 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

Single mother

  0.57 [0.06] 1.97 [0.19] 2.24 [0.33] 0.344 [0.03] 1.53 [0.24] 0.243 [0.48] -0.045 [0.07] -4.080 [0.05]

Single father

  0.22 [0.16] 1.47 [0.74] - 0.107 [0.79] 2.08 [0.43] -0.153 [0.85] 0.018 [0.77] -7.759 [0.01]

Mother and stepfather

  0.93 [0.84] 3.20 [0.10] 4.16 [0.20] 0.339 [0.12] 2.48 [0.08] 0.550 [0.24] -0.046 [0.20] -

Father and stepmother

  1.16 [0.81] 3.11 [0.35] - 0.229 [0.57] 1.17 [0.87] 0.744 [0.38] -0.064 [0.33] -9.931 [0.12]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

  1.24 [0.74] 1.87 [0.68] 8.77 [0.25] 0.557 [0.13] 1.16 [0.88] 1.093 [0.18] -0.198 [0.00] -0.738 [0.91]

Early Initiators of Sex

Both biological parents

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

Single mother

0.73 [0.03] 0.94 [0.70] 1.12 [0.60] 1.03 [0.85] 0.123 [0.01] 1.23 [0.07] 0.160 [0.11] -0.004 [0.77] 0.277 [0.44]

Single father

1.00 [0.99] 0.57 [0.32] 1.58 [0.42] 4.00 [0.01] 0.391 [0.01] 1.71 [0.14] 0.356 [0.01] 0.013 [0.74] 1.847 [0.09]

Mother and stepfather

1.04 [0.83] 1.24 [0.26] 1.27 [0.42] 1.86 [0.01] 0.192 [0.00] 1.62 [0.00] 0.355 [0.01] -0.035 [0.07] 1.115 [0.02]

Father and stepmother

0.45 [0.05] 0.61 [0.32] 2.85 [0.02] 0.79 [0.59] 0.169 [0.16] 2.36 [0.01] 0.631 [0.02] 0.008 [0.80] 2.163 [0.02]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.34 [0.31] 1.17 [0.66] 1.38 [0.52] 1.81 [0.08] 0.220 [0.02] 1.45 [0.17] 0.450 [0.05] -0.025 [0.36] 1.300 [0.11]

Committed More Crimes /Delinquencies in 1980

Both biological parents

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

Single mother

0.66 [0.14] 1.05 [0.76] 0.89 [0.79] 0.91 [0.73] 0.089 [0.35] 0.96 [0.87] 0.102 [0.60] -0.008 [0.64] 0.514 [0.14]

Single father

0.24 [0.18] 0.73 [0.53] 2.81 [0.20] 2.79 [0.12] 0.383 [0.10] 4.62 [0.04] 0.182 [0.72] -0.062 [0.16] 2.191 [0.04]

Mother and stepfather

0.42 [0.02] 1.27 [0.22] 1.48 [0.38] 1.79 [0.05] 0.278 [0.01] 1.39 [0.29] 0.235 [0.33] -0.050 [0.01] 1.100 [0.02]

Father and stepmother

0.27 [0.10] 0.78 [0.59] 1.13 [0.88] 0.66 [0.51] 0.057 [0.79] 3.73 [0.02] 0.876 [0.03] -0.053 [0.14] 1.360 [0.14]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.28 [0.71] 1.15 [0.70] 1.16 [0.89] 1.30 [0.70] 0.221 [0.40] 1.23 [0.89] 0.612 [0.24] -0.043 [0.33] 2.098 [0.01]
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes from Multi-logistic Regressions Among Early Sex Initiators, by Family Structure

Marriage and Fertility Outcome at 33

Family Type
Both biological parents Single
mother
Single
father
Mother and stepfather Father and stepmother Others (relatives and non-relatives)

Never married without children

0.109 0.163 0.136 0.090 0.033 0.082

Never married with children

0.092 0.118 0.176 0.112 0.103 0.086

Married without children

0.098 0.097 0.132 0.090 0.152 0.081

Married with children

0.442 0.366 0.330 0.390 0.512 0.387

Married but divorced without children

0.057 0.051 0.040 0.025 - 0.081

Married but divorced with children

0.202 0.204 0.186 0.294 0.200 0.283
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes from Multi-logistic Regressions Among those who Committed 9 or more Crimes/Delinquencies in 1980, by Family Structure

Marriage and Fertility Outcome at 33

Family Type
Both biological parents Single
mother
Single 
father
Mother and stepfather Father and stepmother Others (relatives and non-relatives)

Never married without children

0.149 0.224 0.223 0.133 0.076 0.149

Never married with children

0.090 0.102 0.114 0.110 0.111 0.072

Married without children

0.112 0.110 0.109 0.083 0.179 0.088

Married with children

0.433 0.379 0.377 0.398 0.430 0.407

Married but divorced without children

0.052 0.034 0.030 0.055 0.062 0.059

Married but divorced with children

0.163 0.152 0.147 0.221 0.141 0.225
D1. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Alcohol Abuse or Dependence Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

Adult Alcohol Abuse or Dependence
Early initiators of alcohol at ages 11-17 Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-19 Early initiators of sex at age s 11-19 Committed 9 + crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of observations

3113 3104 4531 767

Age of alcohol initiation

Early Initiators

- 1 1 1

Else

- 0.55 [0.00] 0.50 [0.00] 0.49 [0.00]

Age of marijuana initiation

Early Initiators

1 - 1 1

Else

0.55 [0.00] - 0.49 [0.00] 0.82 [0.36]

Age of cocaine initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 1 1

Else

0.86 [0.62] 0.82 [0.50] 0.91 [0.76] 0.59 [0.28]

Age of sex initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 - 1

Else

0.75 [0.11] 0.74 [0.11] - 0.32 [0.02]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

Committed 9 or more

1 1 1 -

Else

0.65 [0.01] 0.71 [0.00] 0.65 [0.00] -

Sex

Male

2.28 [0.00] 1.90 [0.00] 2.37 [0.00] 1.73 [0.02]

Female

1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1

Black

0.85 [0.21] 0.88 [0.34] 0.88 [0.28] 0.74 [0.24]

Hispanic

0.91 [0.51] 0.95 [0.71] 0.98 [0.90] 1.28 [0.31]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.81 [0.19] 0.83 [0.24] 0.83 [0.19] 0.78 [0.36]

Some college and up

0.65 [0.01] 0.63 [0.01] 0.68 [0.01] 0.62 [0.12]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.97 [0.04] 0.97 [0.01] 0.96 [0.00] 0.99 [0.61]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.39 [0.00] 1.26 [0.04] 1.35 [0.00] 1.47 [0.06]

No

1 1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents

1 1 1 1

Single mother

0.75 [0.07] 0.79 [0.12] 0.73 [0.03] 0.66 [0.14]

Single father

0.94 [0.88] 0.91 [0.83] 1.00 [0.99] 0.24 [0.18]

Mother and stepfather

0.99 [0.97] 0.84 [0.38] 1.04 [0.83] 0.42 [0.02]

Father and stepmother

0.54 [0.15] 0.54 [0.14] 0.45 [0.05] 0.27 [0.10]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.08 [0.82] 1.33 [0.38] 1.34 [0.31] 1.28 [0.71]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.98 [0.90] 0.96 [0.75] 1.01 [0.90] 1.05 [0.83]

Some college

0.84 [0.39] 0.85 [0.38] 0.85 [0.36] 0.77 [0.49]

College graduate

0.81 [0.36] 0.70 [0.12] 0.70 [0.11] 0.72 [0.43]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.12 [0.36] 1.22 [0.11] 1.19 [0.11] 0.92 [0.71]

Some college

1.00 [0.98] 1.15 [0.46] 1.03 [0.89] 0.81 [0.57]

College graduate

1.18 [0.38] 1.40 [0.07] 1.34 [0.09] 0.80 [0.07]
D2. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Past-month Drug Use Among Early Initiators
Independent Variables Adult Drug Use
Early initiators of alcohol at ages 11-19 Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-19 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-19 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 1+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of observations

4548 3148 667 3126 3460

Age of alcohol initiation

Early Initiators

- 1 1 1 1

Else

- 0.63 [0.04] 0.42 [0.18] 0.51 [0.01] 0.58 [0.01]

Age of marijuana initiation

Early Initiators

1 - 1 1 1

Else

0.32 [0.00] - 0.53 [0.15] 0.35 [0.00] 0.38 [0.00]

Age of cocaine initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 - 1 1

Else

0.48 [0.00] 0.49 [0.00] - 0.48 [0.00] 0.46 [0.00]

Age of sex initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 1 - 1

Else

0.55 [0.00] 0.60 [0.00] 0.54 [0.03] - 0.59 [0.00]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

Committed 9 or more

1 1 1 1 -

Else

0.53 [0.00] 0.60 [0.00] 0.52 [0.02] 0.54 [0.00] -

Sex

Male

1.31 [0.01] 1.29 [0.03] 1.08 [0.71] 1.26 [0.05] 1.22 [0.08]

Female

1 1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1 1

Black

1.05 [0.72] 1.04 [0.76] 0.79 [0.39] 1.07 [0.62] 1.07 [0.61]

Hispanic

0.70 [0.02] 0.77 [0.10] 0.77 [0.34] 0.71 [0.04] 0.70 [0.03]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.89 [0.49] 0.93 [0.70] 1.01 [0.97] 0.91 [0.60] 0.93 [0.68]

Some college and up

0.69 [0.04] 0.77 [0.10] 0.86 [0.67] 0.67 [0.03] 0.74 [0.11]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.99 [0.50] 1.00 [0.73] 0.96 [0.14] 1.00 [0.81] 0.99 [0.47]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.25 [0.05] 1.28 [0.04] 1.33 [0.16] 1.13 [0.32] 1.14 [0.30]

No

1 1 1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents

1 1 1 1 1

Single mother

0.91 [0.55] 0.63 [0.04] 0.57 [0.06] 0.94 [0.70] 1.05 [0.76]

Single father

0.85 [0.73] 0.81 [0.20] 0.22 [0.16] 0.57 [0.32] 0.73 [0.53]

Mother and stepfather

1.29 [0.17] 0.76 [0.59] 0.93 [0.84] 1.24 [0.26] 1.27 [0.22]

Father and stepmother

0.66 [0.36] 1.12 [0.56] 1.16 [0.81] 0.61 [0.32] 0.78 [0.59]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.33 [0.38] 1.15 [0.70] 1.24 [0.74] 1.17 [0.66] 1.15 [0.70]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.88 [0.30] 0.91 [0.48] 1.02 [0.94] 0.88 [0.33] 0.90 [0.42]

Some college

1.48 [0.04] 1.70 [0.48] 1.81 [0.09] 1.58 [0.02] 1.50 [0.04]

College graduate

1.40 [0.13] 1.32 [0.24] 1.64 [0.20] 1.26 [0.35] 1.36 [0.20]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.12 [0.37] 1.13 [0.34] 1.10 [0.68] 1.10 [0.47] 1.05 [0.73]

Some college

0.91 [0.62] 0.88 [0.54] 1.60 [0.17] 0.90 [0.63] 0.86 [0.46]

College graduate

0.88 [0.52] 0.90 [0.59] 0.52 [0.07] 1.03 [0.90] 0.80 [0.29]
D3. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Ever Being in Jail Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

In Jail By Age 33
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-15 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-15 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-19 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of Observations

1260 299 3191 767

Age of alcohol initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 1 1

Else

0.99 [0.97] 0.52 [0.16] 1.07 [0.71] 0.81 [0.49]

Age of marijuana initiation

Early Initiators

- 1 1 1

Else

- 0.53 [0.22] 0.58 [0.00] 0.61 [0.10]

Age of cocaine initiation

Early Initiators

1 - 1 1

Else

0.30 [0.00] - 0.36 [0.00] 0.44 [0.03]

Age of sex initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 - 1

Else

0.67 [0.38] 2.08 [0.31] - 0.68 [0.46]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

Committed 9 or more

1 1 1 -

Else

0.51 [0.01] 0.72 [0.47] 0.55 [0.00] -

Sex

Male

7.62 [0.00] 6.50 [0.00] 7.77 [0.00] 7.43 [0.00]

Female

1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1

Black

7.81 [0.00] 9.62 [0.00] 4.05 [0.00] 5.22 [0.00]

Hispanic

2.26 [0.02] 4.41 [0.01] 1.74 [0.02] 1.16 [0.73]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.44 [0.01] 0.92 [0.88] 0.50 [0.00] 0.27 [0.00]

Some college and up

0.28 [0.02] 0.41 [0.20] 0.28 [0.00] 0.14 [0.00]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.91 [0.01] 0.81 [0.00] 0.92 [0.00] 0.94 [0.09]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.20 [0.51] 0.58 [0.27] 1.25 [0.24] 1.45 [0.24]

No

1 1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents

1 1 1 1

Single mother

0.95 [0.88] 1.97 [0.19] 1.12 [0.60] 0.89 [0.79]

Single father

1.26 [0.78] 1.47 [0.74] 1.58 [0.42] 2.81 [0.20]

Mother and stepfather

1.10 [0.82] 3.20 [0.10] 1.27 [0.42] 1.48 [0.38]

Father and stepmother

1.05 [0.96] 3.11 [0.35] 2.85 [0.02] 1.13 [0.88]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

0.96 [0.96] 1.87 [0.68] 1.38 [0.52] 1.16 [0.89]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.02 [0.95] 2.82 [0.04] 0.98 [0.92] 1.08 [0.81]

Some college

1.45 [0.45] 2.11 [0.47] 1.09 [0.82] 1.00 [0.99]

College graduate

0.33 [0.32] 2.09 [0.60] 0.74 [0.57] 0.18 [0.13]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1

High school graduate

0.61 [0.09] 0.37 [0.05] 0.54 [0.00] 0.56 [0.10]

Some college

1.10 [0.84] 0.22 [0.10] 0.88 [0.70] 0.94 [0.92]

College graduate

0.24 [0.08] 0.34 [0.34] 0.47 [0.08] 1.33 [0.61]
D4. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Ever Being In Poverty Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

Ever in Poverty Between Ages 25-29
Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-15 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-15 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980 (9+)

Number of Observations

75 1292 767

Age of alcohol initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 1

Else

0.29 [0.21] 1.02 [0.92] 1.12 [0.59]

Age of marijuana initiation

Early Initiators

1 1 1

Else

1.18 [0.88] 0.74 [0.04] 0.90 [0.60]

Age of cocaine initiation

Early Initiators

- 1 1

Else

- 0.79 [0.50] 0.83 [0.72]

Age of sex initiation

Early Initiators

1 - 1

Else

0.49 [0.34] - 0.80 [0.27]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

Committed 9 or more

1 1 -

Else

2.03 [0.28] 0.91 [0.57] -

Sex

Male

1.09 [0.90] 0.43 [0.00] 7.28 [0.12]

Female

1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1

Black

0.47 [0.37] 2.76 [0.00] 2.25 [0.00]

Hispanic

0.53 [0.51] 1.64 [0.01] 1.45 [0.13]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1

High school graduate

0.55 [0.52] 0.47 [0.00] 0.45 [0.00]

Some college and up

1.56 [0.68] 0.30 [0.00] 0.38 [0.00]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.81 [0.02] 0.94 [0.00] 0.95 [0.05]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.20 [0.80] 1.31 [0.09] 1.56 [0.03]

No

1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents

1 1 1

Single mother

2.24 [0.33] 1.03 [0.85] 0.91 [0.73]

Single father

- 4.00 [0.01] 2.79 [0.12]

Mother and stepfather

4.16 [0.20] 1.86 [0.01] 1.79 [0.05]

Father and stepmother

- 0.79 [0.59] 0.66 [0.51]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

8.77 [0.25] 1.81 [0.08] 1.30 [0.70]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1

High school graduate

0.84 [0.81] 0.68 [0.01] 0.67 [0.05]

Some college

1.22 [0.88] 0.86 [0.60] 1.07 [0.85]

College graduate

14.98 [0.15] 0.70 [0.38] 0.46 [0.09]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1

High school graduate

0.34 [0.21] 0.87 [0.35] 0.87 [0.51]

Some college

0.61 [0.74] 0.83 [0.50] 0.63 [0.23]

College graduate

0.13 [0.21] 0.60 [0.11] 1.09 [0.81]
D5. Marginal Effects from Negative Binomial Regressions of Years Being in Poverty Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

Years in Poverty Between Ages 25-29
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-17 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-17 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of Observations

2413 297 3157 754
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 0 0
Else 0.051 [0.20] 0.134 [0.41] 0.026 [0.47] -0.020 [0.81]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators - 0 0 0
Else - -0.075 [0.74] -0.038 [0.28] -0.078 [0.29]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 0 - 0 0
Else -0.164 [0.00] - -0.161 [0.01] -0.187 [0.06]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 - 0
Else -0.092 [0.04] -0.095 [0.59] - 0.074 [0.41]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9 or more 0 0 0 -
Else -0.085 [0.06] -0.208 [0.15] -0.070 [0.12] -
Sex
Male -0.235 [0.00] -0.262 [0.07] -0.404 [0.00] -0.232 [0.01]
Female 0 0 0 0
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 0 0 0 0
Black 0.531 [0.00] 0.436 [0.08] 0.472 [0.00] 0.520 [0.00]
Hispanic 0.120 [0.05] 0.116 [0.56] 0.149 [0.01] 0.070 [0.51]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.236 [0.00] -0.383 [0.03] -0.472 [0.00] -0.209 [0.03]
Some college and up -0.336 [0.00] -0.306 [0.12] -0.442 [0.00] -0.331 [0.00]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale -0.015 [0.00] -0.023 [0.12] -0.019 [0.00] -0.213 [0.01]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 0.047 [0.23] -0.005 [0.97] 0.059 [0.12] 0.034 [0.66]
No 0 0 0 0
Family Type
Both biological parents 0 0 0 0
Single mother 0.108 [0.03] 0.344 [0.03] 0.123 [0.01] 0.089 [0.35]
Single father 0.174 [0.22] 0.107 [0.79] 0.391 [0.01] 0.383 [0.10]
Mother and stepfather 0.172 [0.22] 0.339 [0.12] 0.192 [0.00] 0.278 [0.01]
Father and stepmother 0.034 [0.79] 0.229 [0.57] 0.169 [0.16] 0.057 [0.79]
Others (relatives and non-relatives) 0.246 [0.03] 0.557 [0.13] 0.220 [0.02] 0.221 [0.40]
Mother's Education Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.111 [0.01] -0.340 [0.02] -0.088 [0.03] -0.161 [0.04]
Some college -0.213 [0.00] -0.711 [0.01] -0.094 [0.18] -0.054 [0.71]
College graduate -0.233 [0.01] -0.203 [0.46] -0.157 [0.04] -0.412 [0.02]
Father's Education Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.044 [0.31] -0.180 [0.23] -0.088 [0.03] -0.111 [0.18]
Some college -0.108 [0.13] -0.039 [0.87] -0.094 [0.18] -0.250 [0.08]
College graduate -0.096 [0.20] -0.128 [0.62] -0.157 [0.04] -0.070 [0.61]
D6.Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Ever Being on Welfare Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

Ever on welfare Between Ages 21-33
Early initiators of alcohol at ages11-15 Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-17 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-15 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Number of Observations 1077 1260 299 3191 767
Age of alcohol initiation

Early Initiators

- 1 1 1 1

Else

- 1.02 [0.77] 1.04 [0.89] 0.82 [0.05] 1.05 [0.80]

Age of marijuana initiation

Early Initiators 1 - 1 1 1
Else 1.01 [0.94] - 0.90 [0.74] 0.95 [0.59] 0.49 [0.00]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 1 1 - 1 1
Else 0.62 [0.04] 0.67 [0.03] - 0.70 [0.02] 0.86 [0.56]

Age of sex initiation

Early Initiators 1 1 1 - 1
Else 0.52 [0.00] 0.83 [0.29] 0.81 [0.62] - 0.56 [0.03]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

Committed 9 or more 1 1 1 1 -
Else 0.94 [0.72] 0.55 [0.00] 0.90 [0.76] 0.75 [0.01] -
Sex
Male 0.50 [0.00] 0.45 [0.00] 0.63 [0.13] 0.29 [0.00] 0.34 [0.00]
Female 1 1 1 1 1
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 1 1 1 1 1
Black 2.65 [0.00] 3.36 [0.00] 3.13 [0.00] 2.62 [0.00] 2.92 [0.00]
Hispanic 1.37 [0.12] 1.59 [0.01] 0.87 [0.72] 1.31 [0.03] 1.81 [0.02]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.58 [0.01] 0.49 [0.00] 0.43 [0.04] 0.48 [0.00] 0.45 [0.00]
Some college and up 0.23 [0.00] 0.37 [0.00] 0.23 [0.00] 0.28 [0.00] 0.29 [0.00]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale 0.94 [0.00] 0.97 [0.14] 0.96 [0.28] 0.94 [0.00] 0.97 [0.26]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 1.22 [0.24] 1.64 [0.00] 2.38 [0.00] 1.41 [0.00] 1.43 [0.08]
No 1 1 1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents 1 1 1 1 1
Single mother 0.92 [0.70] 1.11 [0.56] 1.53 [0.24] 1.23 [0.07] 0.96 [0.87]
Single father 2.31 [0.10] 1.81 [0.29] 2.08 [0.43] 1.71 [0.14] 4.62 [0.04]
Mother and stepfather 1.88 [0.03] 2.00 [0.00] 2.48 [0.08] 1.62 [0.00] 1.39 [0.29]
Father and stepmother 3.17 [0.04] 1.54 [0.36] 1.17 [0.87] 2.36 [0.01] 3.73 [0.02]
Others (relatives and non-relatives) 2.10 [0.09] 1.78 [0.14] 1.16 [0.88] 1.45 [0.17] 1.23 [0.89]
Mother's Education Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.93 [0.69] 0.99 [0.94] 0.64 [0.19] 0.93 [0.44] 0.84 [0.41]
Some college 0.84 [0.59] 0.56 [0.05] 0.42 [0.14] 0.85 [0.38] 0.57 [0.16]
College graduate 1.07 [0.85] 0.92 [0.80] 1.01 [0.99] 0.64 [0.05] 0.45 [0.09]
Father's Education Attainment
High school dropout 1 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 0.83 [0.30] 0.74 [0.06] 0.67 [0.23] 0.73 [0.00] 0.60 [0.02]
Some college 0.74 [0.29] 0.69 [0.17] 0.86 [0.77] 0.83 [0.26] 0.96 [0.90]
College graduate 0.45 [0.01] 0.42 [0.00] 0.70 [0.52] 0.50 [0.00] 0.66 [0.27]
D7.Marginal Effects from Negative Binomial Regressions of Years Being on Welfare Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

Years on Welfare Between Ages 21-33
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-17 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-17 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Number of Observations 2433 299 3192 767
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 0 0
Else -0.108 [0.19] -0.002 [0.99] -0.176 [0.05] -0.132 [0.38]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators - 0 0 0
Else - 0.038 [0.93] -0.115 [0.13] 0.066 [0.66]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 0 - 0 0
Else -0.268 [0.02] - -0.232 [0.09] -0.317 [0.13]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 - 0
Else -0.357 [0.00] -0.130 [0.72] - -0.226 [0.22]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9 or more 0 0 0 -
Else -0.084 [0.37] -0.237 [0.45] -0.230 [0.02] -
Sex
Male -0.869 [0.00] -0.852 [0.02] -1.566 [0.00] -0.960 [0.00]
Female 0 0 0 0
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 0 0 0 0
Black 1.054 [0.00] 1.452 [0.06] 0.782 [0.00] 0.782 [0.01]
Hispanic 0.300 [0.02] 0.355 [0.43] 0.193 [0.11] 0.323 [0.20]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.556 [0.00] -0.593 [0.09] -0.587 [0.00] -0.530 [0.01]
Some college and up -0.792 [0.00] -1.142 [0.01] -0.987 [0.00] -0.840 [0.00]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale -0.036 [0.00] -0.070 [0.04] -0.045 [0.00] -0.040 [0.03]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 0.316 [0.00] 0.520 [0.06] 0.288 [0.00] 0.356 [0.02]
No 0 0 0 0
Family Type
Both biological parents 0 0 0 0
Single mother 0.165 [0.12] 0.243 [0.48] 0.160 [0.11] 0.102 [0.60]
Single father 0.097 [0.75] -0.153 [0.85] 0.356 [0.01] 0.182 [0.72]
Mother and stepfather 0.297 [0.03] 0.550 [0.24] 0.355 [0.01] 0.235 [0.33]
Father and stepmother 0.498 [0.05] 0.744 [0.38] 0.631 [0.02] 0.876 [0.03]
Others (relatives and non-relatives) 0.582 [0.01] 1.093 [0.18] 0.450 [0.05] 0.612 [0.24]
Mother's Education Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.207 [0.02] -0.657 [0.03] -0.180 [0.04] -0.169 [0.29]
Some college -0.468 [0.00] -1.087 [0.03] -0.140 [0.37] -0.154 [0.61]
College graduate -0.609 [0.00] -0.255 [0.65] -0.691 [0.00] -0.703 [0.05]
Father's Education Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.144 [0.10] -0.481 [0.11] -0.237 [0.01] -0.338 [0.04]
Some college -0.284 [0.04] -0.110 [0.81] -0.191 [0.20] -0.619 [0.03]
College graduate -0.476 [0.00] -0.811 [0.11] -0.697 [0.00] -0.487 [0.08]
D8. Marginal Effects from OLS Regressions of Percent Time Employed Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

Percent Time Employed
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-19 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-17 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-15 Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Number of Observations

3090 298 1280 765

Age of alcohol initiation

 

Early Initiators

0 0 0 0

Else

0.008 [0.36] 0.000 [1.00] 0.003 [0.82] -0.049 [0.02]

Age of marijuana initiation

 

Early Initiators

- 0 0 0

Else

- 0.020 [0.62] 0.003 [0.78] 0.018 [0.16]

Age of cocaine initiation

 

Early Initiators

0 - 0 0

Else

0.030 [0.00] - 0.043 [0.01] 0.031 [0.13]

Age of sex initiation

 

Early Initiators

0 0 - 0

Else

0.015 [0.01] 0.032 [0.11] - 0.014 [0.25]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

 

Committed 9 or more

0 0 0 -

Else

0.019 [0.00] 0.021 [0.31] 0.022 [0.08] -

Sex

 

Male

0.010 [0.06] 0.024 [0.23] 0.041 [0.00] -0.001 [0.93]

Female

0 0 0 0

Race/Ethnicity

 

Non-black non-Hispanic

0 0 0 0

Black

-0.098 [0.00] -0.085 [0.00] -0.103 [0.00] -0.088 [0.00]

Hispanic

-0.003 [0.71] -0.003 [0.92] -0.019 [0.22] -0.004 [0.82]

Educational Attainment

 

High school dropout

0 0 0 0

High school graduate

0.063 [0.00] 0.080 [0.01] 0.061 [0.00] 0.046 [0.01]

Some college and up

0.089 [0.00] 0.138 [0.00] 0.087 [0.00] 0.071 [0.00]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.003 [0.00] 0.004 [0.07] 0.005 [0.00] 0.002 [0.12]

Parent with alcohol problem

 

Yes

-0.004 [0.50] 0.038 [0.06] -0.001 [0.90] -0.008 [0.52]

No

0 0 0 0

Family Type

 

Both biological parents

0 0 0 0

Single mother

-0.011 [0.15] -0.045 [0.07] -0.004 [0.77] -0.008 [0.64]

Single father

-0.038 [0.11] 0.018 [0.77] 0.013 [0.74] -0.062 [0.16]

Mother and stepfather

-0.022 [0.04] -0.046 [0.20] -0.035 [0.07] -0.050 [0.01]

Father and stepmother

-0.026 [0.16] -0.064 [0.33] 0.008 [0.80] -0.053 [0.14]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

-0.035 [0.05] -0.198 [0.00] -0.025 [0.36] -0.043 [0.33]

Mother's Education Attainment

 

High school dropout

0 0 0 0

High school graduate

0.020 [0.00] 0.034 [0.14] 0.019 [0.12] 0.009 [0.49]

Some college

0.027 [0.00] 0.042 [0.26] 0.019 [0.35] 0.012 [0.57]

College graduate

0.028 [0.01] 0.027 [0.51] -0.006 [0.82] 0.021 [0.38]

Father's Education Attainment

 

High school dropout

0 0 0 0

High school graduate

0.005 [0.44] -0.025 [0.29] 0.001 [0.95] 0.011 [0.40]

Some college

0.013 [0.15] -0.015 [0.67] 0.008 [0.70] 0.040 [0.06]

College graduate

0.699 [0.00] -0.017 [0.64] 0.019 [0.38]  
D9.Marginal Effects from Weibull Regressions of Age when Reached 2 Years of Tenure Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

Age Reached two years of Job Tenure
Early initiators of marijuana at ages 11-17 Early initiators of cocaine at ages 11-15 Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17 Committed 1+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Number of Observations 2218 61 2858 3217
Age of alcohol initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 0 0
Else 0.700 [0.02] -1.149 [0.62] 0.932 [0.00] 0.542 [0.02]
Age of marijuana initiation
Early Initiators - 0 0 0
Else - 0.254 [0.92] -0.504 [0.05] -0.482 [0.04]
Age of cocaine initiation
Early Initiators 0 - 0 0
Else -0.900 [0.28] - -1.177 [0.17] -1.291 [0.15]
Age of sex initiation
Early Initiators 0 0 - 0
Else -1.471 [0.00] -6.792 [0.02] - -1.201 [0.00]
Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)
Committed 9 or more 0 0 0 -
Else -0.477 [0.13] 0.666 [0.73] -0.158 [0.58] -
Sex
Male -0.484 [0.09] -0.316 [0.88] -1.033 [0.00] -0.725 [0.00]
Female 0 0 0 0
Race/Ethnicity
Non-black non-Hispanic 0 0 0 0
Black 1.660 [0.00] -1.169 [0.56] 1.085 [0.00] 1.241 [0.00]
Hispanic 0.354 [0.36] -0.737 [0.73] 0.379 [0.29] 0.637 [0.05]
Educational Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.837 [0.09] 1.391 [0.54] -0.695 [0.09] -0.924 [0.02]
Some college and up -0.376 [0.47] 2.325 [0.38] -0.481 [0.27] -0.660 [0.13]
Rosenberg self-esteem scale -0.005 [0.88] -0.313 [0.19] -0.046 [0.14] -0.021 [0.45]
Parent with alcohol problem
Yes 1.365 [0.00] 2.388 [0.23] 0.385 [0.20] 0.954 [0.00]
No 0 0 0 0
Family Type
Both biological parents 0 0 0 0
Single mother 0.134 [0.75] -4.080 [0.05] 0.277 [0.44] 0.514 [0.14]
Single father 1.114 [0.34] -7.759 [0.01] 1.847 [0.09] 2.191 [0.04]
Mother and stepfather 0.867 [0.11] - 1.115 [0.02] 1.100 [0.02]
Father and stepmother 1.811 [0.08] -9.931 [0.12] 2.163 [0.02] 1.360 [0.14]
Others (relatives and non-relatives) 1.526 [0.12] -0.738 [0.91] 1.300 [0.11] 2.098 [0.01]
Mother's Education Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -1.189 [0.00] -0.674 [0.68] -1.097 [0.00] -1.367 [0.00]
Some college -1.628 [0.00] 1.108 [0.76] -0.745 [0.13] -1.264 [0.00]
College graduate -1.039 [0.07] -5.206 [0.17] -0.969 [0.09] -1.472 [0.00]
Father's Education Attainment
High school dropout 0 0 0 0
High school graduate -0.458 [0.18] 1.848 [0.34] -0.395 [0.18] -0.248 [0.37]
Some college -0.164 [0.74] 2.451 [0.50] 0.262 [0.57] 0.149 [0.72]
College graduate -0.415 [0.40] 1.325 [0.69] -0.404 [0.40] -0.136 [0.75]
D10. Relative Risk Ratios from Multi-logistic Regression of Adult Marital and Fertility Status at age 33 Among Early Initiators

Independent Variables

Adult Family Formation
Early initiators of sex at ages 11-17
Never married without children Never married with children Married without children Married but divorced without children Married but divorced with children

Number of observations = 3048

Age of alcohol initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

0.90 [0.51] 1.54 [0.02] 1.51 [0.03] 1.00 [0.99] 0.87 [0.27]

18-19

1.06 [0.76] 1.76 [0.01] 1.57 [0.04] 0.98 [0.94] 0.93 [0.62]

not by 19

0.81 [0.37] 1.26 [0.33] 1.25 [0.41] 0.59 [0.16] 0.83 [0.29]

Age of marijuana initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

0.83 [0.30] 0.89 [0.52] 0.95 [0.77] 0.70 [0.14] 0.96 [0.75]

18-19

0.92 [0.67] 0.69 [0.12] 0.92 [0.72] 1.12 [0.70] 0.86 [0.40]

not by 19

0.71 [0.07] 0.91 [0.58] 0.92 [0.64] 0.76 [0.26] 0.91 [0.49]

Age of cocaine initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

0.99 [0.98] 0.52 [0.28] 6.84 [0.07] 0.60 [0.46] 1.77 [0.22]

18-19

0.66 [0.35] 0.82 [0.72] 4.31 [0.17] 0.76 [0.67] 1.08 [0.86]

not by 19

0.38 [0.02] 0.56 [0.25] 3.11 [0.28] 0.51 [0.25] 1.03 [0.95]

Age of sex initiation

11-15

- - - - -

16-17

- - - - -

18-19

- - - - -

not by 19

- - - - -

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

9+

1 1 1 1 1

3-8

0.83 [0.30] 0.66 [0.03] 1.04 [0.84] 1.29 [0.34] 0.89 [0.44]

1-2

0.92 [0.67] 0.59 [0.01] 1.05 [0.83] 1.00 [0.99] 0.88 [0.41]

0

0.71 [0.07] 0.44 [0.00] 0.88 [0.57] 0.86 [0.61] 1.03 [0.95]

Sex

Male

2.29 [0.00] 0.94 [0.66] 1.45 [0.02] 0.62 [0.01] 0.57 [0.00]

Female

1 1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1 1

Black

1.46 [0.01] 10.21 [0.00] 0.65 [0.02] 0.54 [0.01] 0.81 [0.10]

Hispanic

2.09 [0.00] 2.33 [0.00] 2.34 [0.00] 0.80 [0.40] 0.91 [0.50]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.26 [0.31] 0.65 [0.02] 1.03 [0.91] 0.54 [0.01] 1.06 [0.71]

Some college and up

2.09 [0.00] 0.57 [0.01] 2.34 [0.00] 0.80 [0.40] 0.90 [0.54]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.98 [0.22] 0.97 [0.09] 1.00 [0.96] 1.02 [0.34] 1.02 [0.15]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

0.90 [0.50] 1.21 [0.22] 0.72 [0.08] 0.68 [0.10] 1.11 [0.38]

No

1 1 1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents

1 1 1 1 1

Single mother

1.87 [0.00] 1.64 [0.00] 1.20 [0.41] 1.09 [0.77] 1.21 [0.22]

Single father

1.73 [0.31] 2.96 [0.05] 1.80 [0.34] 0.93 [0.95] 1.22 [0.71]

Mother and stepfather

0.92 [0.76] 1.44 [0.14] 1.01 [0.98] 0.49 [0.14] 1.67 [0.01]

Father and stepmother

0.26 [0.07] 0.98 [0.97] 1.33 [0.52] - 0.85 [0.66]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

0.85 [0.72] 1.05 [0.90] 0.92 [0.89] 1.65 [0.37] 1.62 [0.13]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout 1 1 1 1 1
High school graduate 1.17 [0.29] 0.80 [0.15] 1.15 [0.45] 1.25 [0.31] 0.93 [0.52]

Some college

1.17 [0.52] 1.02 [0.94] 1.31 [0.31] 1.35 [0.37] 0.72 [0.15]

College graduate

1.05 [0.87] 0.51 [0.10] 1.76 [0.08] 0.78 [0.58] 0.84 [0.50]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.02 [0.88] 1.17 [0.31] 1.09 [0.63] 1.23 [0.36] 1.11 [0.39]

Some college

0.94 [0.79] 0.96 [0.89] 1.15 [0.59] 1.56 [0.14] 0.95 [0.81]

College graduate

1.24 [0.36] 0.92 [0.79] 1.21 [0.45] 0.90 [0.78] 0.93 [0.75]
Independent Variables Adult Family Formation
Committed 9+ crimes/delinquencies in 1980
Never married without children Never married with children Married without children Married but divorced without children Married but divorced with children
Number of observations = 3384

Age of alcohol initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

0.86 [0.27] 1.43 [0.06] 1.21 [0.26] 0.80 [0.29] 0.84 [0.20]

18-19

0.95 [0.73] 1.58 [0.04] 1.19 [0.36] 0.98 [0.92] 0.89 [0.48]

not by 19

0.88 [0.61] 1.16 [0.55] 1.13 [0.59] 0.63 [0.18] 0.86 [0.42]

Age of marijuana initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.11 [0.50] 0.90 [0.60] 0.90 [0.56] 0.96 [0.85] 1.03 [0.83]

18-19

1.07 [0.70] 0.54 [0.02] 0.88 [0.55] 1.19 [0.54] 0.95 [0.78]

not by 19

0.96 [0.80] 0.79 [0.19] 0.80 [0.20] 0.90 [0.67] 0.96 [0.80]

Age of cocaine initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.74 [0.28] 0.58 [0.38] 3.64 [0.11] 1.02 [0.97] 2.62 [0.06]

18-19

1.11 [0.84] 0.73 [0.58] 2.43 [0.26] 0.84 [0.78] 1.16 [0.76]

not by 19

0.63 [0.33] 0.49 [0.17] 1.75 [0.47] 0.49 [0.23] 1.30 [0.60]

Age of sex initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.08 [0.60] 0.68 [0.02] 1.04 [0.81] 1.03 [0.91] 0.75 [0.03]

18-19

1.48 [0.02] 0.48 [0.00] 1.09 [0.67] 0.76 [0.31] 0.45 [0.00]

not by 19

2.48 [0.00] 0.31 [0.00] 1.56 [0.04] 0.79 [0.46] 0.24 [0.00]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

9+

- - - - -

3-8

- - - - -

1-2

- - - - -

0

- -] - - -

Sex

Male

1.69 [0.00] 0.80 [0.13] 1.36 [0.02] 0.62 [0.01] 0.53 [0.00]

Female

1 1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

Non-black non-Hispanic

1 1 1 1 1

Black

1.69 [0.00] 9.76 [0.00] 1.17 [0.58] 0.68 [0.12] 0.78 [0.08]

Hispanic

0.88 [0.41] 2.14 [0.00] 2.40 [0.00] 0.82 [0.42] 0.96 [0.77]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.04 [0.92] 0.64 [0.02] 1.17 [0.58] 1.06 [0.86] 0.99 [0.94]

Some college and up

1.45 [0.09] 0.47 [0.00] 2.40 [0.00] 1.60 [0.18] 0.77 [0.17]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.95 [0.00] 0.94 [0.00] 1.00 [0.88] 0.99 [0.54] 1.01 [0.58]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

0.99 [0.95] 1.15 [0.38] 0.67 [0.02] 0.91 [0.65] 1.17 [0.19]

No

1 1 1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents

1 1 1 1 1

Single mother

1.76 [0.00] 1.33 [0.12] 1.15 [0.52] 0.74 [0.36] 1.05 [0.79]

Single father

1.76 [0.23] 1.53 [0.47] 1.13 [0.85] 0.66 [0.69] 1.02 [0.96]

Mother and stepfather

0.95 [0.82] 1.42 [0.16] 0.78 [0.43] 1.15 [0.68] 1.53 [0.03]

Father and stepmother

0.51 [0.23] 1.26 [0.63] 1.63 [0.26] 1.21 [0.76] 0.87 [0.74]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.04 [0.92] 0.83 [0.67] 0.82 [0.73] 1.22 [0.76] 1.50 [0.24]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.07 [0.63] 0.69 [0.02] 0.94 [0.72] 1.19 [0.42] 0.87 [0.28]

Some college

1.31 [0.18] 1.03 [0.91] 1.25 [0.34] 1.40 [0.29] 0.75 [0.20]

College graduate

1.25 [0.34] 0.61 [0.22] 1.42 [0.16] 1.16 [0.69] 0.91 [0.70]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.21 [0.16] 1.16 [0.37] 1.20 [0.28] 1.06 [0.78] 1.18 [0.20]

Some college

1.03 [0.88] 0.93 [0.81] 1.21 [0.40] 1.17 [0.59] 0.84 [0.39]

College graduate

1.11 [0.59] 0.72 [0.32] 1.27 [0.27] 0.73 [0.32] 0.77 [0.21]