The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Appendix B: Regressions of Adult Outcomes on Adolescent Risky Behaviors, Family Environment, and Other Independent Variables

08/01/2001

Table B1. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Adult Health and Crime Outcomes

Independent Variables

Adult Outcome
Health Crime
Alcohol Abuse or Dependence Odds Ratio [P-value] Past-month Drug Use Odds Ratio [P-value] Ever Being in Jail Odds Ratio [P-value]

Number of observations

5571 5462 5571

Age of alcohol initiation

11-15

1 1 1

16-17

0.88 [0.21] 1.07 [0.58] 1.19 [0.40]

18-19

0.56 [0.00] 1.06 [0.71] 1.54 [0.07]

not by age 19

0.23 [0.00] 0.62 [0.03] 1.16 [0.62]

Age of marijuana initiation

11-15

1 1 1

16-17

1.07 [0.37] 0.76 [0.03] 0.77 [0.20]

18-19

1.30 [0.07] 0.88 [0.40] 0.62 [0.09]

not by age 19

0.61 [0.00] 0.28 [0.00] 0.52 [0.00]

Age of cocaine initiation

11-15

1 1 1

16-17

1.27 [0.50] 0.91 [0.79] 0.28 [0.01]

18-19

0.92 [0.82] 1.03 [0.92] 0.29 [0.00]

not by age 19

0.75 [0.37] 0.53 [0.05] 0.12 [0.00]

Age of sex initiation

11-15

1 1 1

16-17

1.06 [0.56] 1.00 [0.98] 0.84 [0.34]

18-19

1.04 [0.78] 0.69 [0.02] 0.49 [0.02]

not by age 19

0.77 [0.03] 0.28 [0.00] 0.42 [0.00]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

9+

1 1 1

3-8

0.81 [0.07] 0.93 [0.59] 0.57 [0.01]

1-2

0.75 [0.03] 0.81 [0.15] 0.63 [0.03]

0

0.50 [0.00] 0.47 [0.00] 0.28 [0.00]

Sex

Male

2.25 [0.00] 1.25 [0.04] 6.61 [0.00]

Female

1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

White

1 1 1

Black

0.94 [0.59] 1.08 [0.54] 4.62 [0.00]

Hispanic

0.98 [0.84] 0.69 [0.02] 1.64 [0.04]

Educational attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1

High school graduate

0.85 [0.24] 0.91 [0.57] 0.47 [0.00]

Some college and up

0.69 [0.02] 0.72 [0.06] 0.24 [0.00]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.96 [0.01] 1.00 [0.71] 0.92 [0.00]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.33 [0.01] 1.21 [0.09] 1.32 [0.00]

No

1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents

1 1 1

Single mother

0.71 [0.02] 0.96 [0.80] 0.97 [0.89]

Single father

0.87 [0.72] 0.85 [0.73] 1.48 [0.49]

Mothers and stepfather

0.99 [0.96] 1.23 [0.25] 1.08 [0.80]

Dads and stepmother

0.42 [0.04] 0.60 [0.25] 2.61 [0.03]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.21 [0.52] 0.96 [0.91] 1.55 [0.35]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1

High school graduate

0.97 [0.76] 0.89 [0.33] 0.99 [0.95]

Some college

0.81 [0.22] 1.51 [0.02] 1.54 [0.18]

College graduate

0.69 [0.07] 1.36 [0.15] 0.48 [0.21]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1

High school graduate

1.21 [0.08] 1.08 [0.51] 0.54 [0.00]

Some college

0.96 [0.83] 0.94 [0.75] 0.77 [0.44]

College graduate

1.33 [0.08] 0.94 [0.75] 0.44 [0.05]
B2. Estimates from Regressions of Adult Economic Outcomes B2

Independent Variables

Economic Outcomes
Logistic Regressions Odds Ratio [P-value] Negative Binomial Regressions Marginal Effects [P-value] OLS Marginal Effects [P-value] Weibull Regression Marginal Effects [P-Value]
Ever Being in Poverty Ages 25-29 Ever Being on Welfare Ages 21-33 Years in Poverty Ages 25-29 Years on Welfare Ages 21-33 Percent time Employed Age when Reached 2 Years of Tenure

Number of observations

5571 5571 5520 5571 5534 5096

Age of alcohol initiation

11-15

1 1 0 0 0 0

16-17

0.93 [0.48] 0.90 [0.28] -0.031 [0.33] -0.103 [0.09] -0.003 [0.56] -0.401 [0.12]

18-19

1.15 [0.18] 0.80 [0.05] 0.035 [0.32] -0.126 [0.06] -0.003 [0.68] 0.500 [0.07]

not by 19

1.27 [0.05] 1.06 [0.64] 0.051 [0.18] 0.002 [0.98] -0.007 [0.35] 0.735 [0.02]

Age of marijuana initiation

11-15

1 1 0 0 0 0

16-17

0.92 [0.45] 0.98 [0.86] -0.012 [0.73] -0.006 [0.92] 0.003 [0.63] -0.169 [0.54]

18-19

0.79 [0.07] 0.72 [0.01] -0.083 [0.05] -0.148 [0.07] 0.007 [0.35] -0.596 [0.07]

Not by 19

0.90 [0.27] 0.80 [0.03] -0.028 [0.39] -0.091 [0.15] 0.001 [0.88] -0.273 [0.31]

Age of cocaine initiation

11-15

1 1 0 0 0 0

16-17

0.86 [0.67] 0.72 [0.34] -0.075 [0.49] -0.204 [0.35] 0.029 [0.19] -0.749 [0.46]

18-19

0.67 [0.22] 0.59 [0.11] -0.140 [0.19] -0.303 [0.15] 0.052 [0.01] -1.063 [0.27]

Not by 19

0.59 [0.08] 0.58 [0.08] -0.174 [0.08] -0.317 [0.11] 0.048 [0.02] -0.830 [0.37]

Age of sex initiation

11-15

1 1 0 0 0 0

16-17

0.86 [0.10] 0.89 [0.22] -0.060 [0.04] -0.048 [0.40] 0.011 [0.05] -0.698 [0.01]

18-19

0.71 [0.00] 0.60 [0.00] -0.109 [0.00] -0.264 [0.00] 0.017 [0.01] -1.583 [0.00]

Not by 19

0.67 [0.00] 0.34 [0.00] -0.168 [0.00] -0.586 [0.00] 0.024 [0.00] -2.725 [0.00]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

9+

1 1 0 0 0 0

3-8

0.81 [0.07] 0.83 [0.10] -0.082 [0.03] -0.144 [0.05] 0.016 [0.02] -0.391 [0.19]

1-2

0.96 [0.69] 0.80 [0.06] -0.035 [0.35] -0.133 [0.07] 0.014 [0.04] -0.285 [0.36]

0

0.85 [0.17] 0.69 [0.00] -0.075 [0.04] -0.221 [0.00] 0.015 [0.02] -0.606 [0.05]

Sex

Male

0.59 [0.00] 0.32 [0.00] -0.231 [0.00] -0.712 [0.00] 0.020 [0.00] -1.003 [0.00]

Female

1 1 0 0 0 0

Race/Ethnicity

White

1 1 0 0 0 0

Black

2.78 [0.00] 2.86 [0.00] 0.399 [0.00] 0.756 [0.00] -0.084 [0.00] 1.011 [0.00]

Hispanic

1.73 [0.00] 1.72 [0.00] 0.189 [0.00] 0.320 [0.00] -0.006 [0.33] 0.425 [0.10]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 0 0 0 0

High school graduate

0.38 [0.00] 0.46 [0.00] -0.218 [0.00] -0.386 [0.00] 0.072 [0.00] -1.066 [0.00]

Some college and up

0.24 [0.00] 0.25 [0.00] -0.385 [0.00] -0.704 [0.00] 0.108 [0.00] -0.777 [0.03]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.95 [0.00] 0.96 [0.00] -0.016 [0.00] -0.027 [0.00] 0.003 [0.00] -0.044 [0.05]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

1.22 [0.02] 1.41 [0.00] 0.040 [0.13] 0.234 [0.04] 0.002 [0.66] 0.805 [0.00]

No

1 1 0 0 0 0

Family Type

           

Both biological parents

1 1 0 0 0 0

Single mother

1.32 [0.01] 1.27 [0.02] 0.110 [0.00] 0.176 [0.01] -0.019 [0.00] 0.533 [0.06]

Single father

2.73 [0.00] 2.34 [0.01] 0.275 [0.00] 0.243 [0.22] -0.021 [0.01] 1.899 [0.04]

Mother and stepfather

1.47 [0.01] 1.49 [0.00] 0.149 [0.00] 0.217 [0.01] -0.031 [0.00] 0.779 [0.05]

Father and stepmother

1.12 [0.68] 1.94 [0.01] 0.100 [0.24] 0.348 [0.03] -0.014 [0.41] 1.897 [0.01]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

1.79 [0.01] 1.48 [0.08] 0.154 [0.02] 0.260 [0.07] -0.018 [0.21] [0.05]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 0 0 0 0

High school graduate

0.71 [0.00] 0.88 [0.14] -0.124 [0.00] -0.147 [0.01] 0.019 [0.00] -1.085 [0.00]

Some college

0.77 [0.06] 0.90 [0.49] -0.078 [0.09] -0.115 [0.19] 0.021 [0.01] -0.566 [0.11]

College graduate

0.55 [0.00] 0.58 [0.01] -0.270 [0.00] -0.611 [0.00] 0.021 [0.02] -0.663 [0.10]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 0 0 0 0

High school graduate

0.85 [0.06] 0.72 [0.00] -0.079 [0.00] -0.219 [0.00] 0.015 [0.00] -0.447 [0.05]

Some college

0.86 [0.29] 0.81 [0.12] -0.106 [0.02] -0.223 [0.01] 0.010 [0.18] -0.088 [0.80]

College graduate

1.03 [0.81] 0.50 [0.00] -0.062 [0.18] -0.452 [0.00] 0.016 [0.03] -0.504 [0.14]
B3. Relative Risk Ratios from Multinomial Logistic Regression of Adult Marital and Fertility Status at Age 33

Independent Variables

Family Formation Outcomes
Marital and Fertility and Status at age 33 Multi-logistic Regressions Relative Risk Ratios [P-value] Reference Group: Married with Children
Never married without children Never married with children Married without children Married but divorced without children Married but divorced with children

Number of observations=5431

Age of alcohol initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

0.83 [0.13] 1.39 [0.05] 1.10 [0.48] 0.88 [0.47] 0.89 [0.31]

18-19

0.96 [0.76] 1.37 [0.09] 1.14 [0.39] 0.94 [0.77] 0.95 [0.72]

not by 19

0.86 [0.32] 1.12 [0.57] 1.03 [0.87] 0.68 [0.14] 0.88 [0.38]

Age of marijuana initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.17 [0.25] 0.98 [0.92] 0.91 [0.53] 0.94 [0.75] 0.99 [0.97]

18-19

1.00 [0.99] 0.67 [0.07] 0.97 [0.86] 1.38 [0.15] 0.88 [0.40]

not by 19

0.96 [0.73] 0.90 [0.52] 0.90 [0.44] 0.92 [0.69] 0.92 [0.49]

Age of cocaine initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.10 [0.83] 0.48 [0.21] 2.71 [0.14] 0.90 [0.86] 1.97 [0.14]

18-19

0.81 [0.63] 0.70 [0.50] 1.94 [0.31] 0.88 [0.84] 1.13 [0.79]

not by 19

0.41 [0.03] 0.48 [0.13] 1.26 [0.72] 0.53 [0.27] 1.08 [0.86]

Age of sex initiation

11-15

1 1 1 1 1

16-17

1.20 [0.17] 0.68 [0.01] 1.06 [0.69] 1.13 [0.53] 0.72 [0.00]

18-19

1.65 [0.00] 0.56 [0.00] 1.22 [0.23] 0.86 [0.51] 0.48 [0.00]

not by 19

3.23 [0.00] 0.33 [0.00] 1.76 [0.00] 0.73 [0.22] 0.23 [0.00]

Number of crimes/delinquencies (1980)

9+

1 1 1 1 1

3-8

0.76 [0.05] 0.62 [0.01] 0.96 [0.79] 1.16 [0.50] 0.99 [0.92]

1-2

0.83 [0.19] 0.54 [0.00] 1.08 [0.64] 0.92 [0.74] 0.94 [0.66]

0

0.67 [0.00] 0.45 [0.00] 0.96 [0.82] 0.78 [0.30] 0.83 [0.20]

Sex

Male

2.06 [0.00] 0.74 [0.02] 1.46 [0.00] 0.75 [0.05] 0.58 [0.00]

Female

1 1 1 1 1

Race/Ethnicity

White

1 1 1 1 1

Black

1.91 [0.00] 11.73 [0.00] 0.88 [0.34] 0.67 [0.06] 0.94 [0.56]

Hispanic

0.87 [0.27] 2.36 [0.00] 0.76 [0.05] 0.77 [0.20] 0.98 [0.85]

Educational Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.17 [0.38] 0.63 [0.01] 1.11 [0.64] 1.21 [0.54] 1.13 [0.38]

Some college and up

1.64 [0.01] 0.52 [0.00] 2.12 [0.00] 1.72 [0.08] 0.86 [0.33]

Rosenberg self-esteem scale

0.96 [0.00] 0.96 [0.00] 1.00 [0.57] 1.00 [0.88] 1.00 [0.74]

Parent with alcohol problem

Yes

0.96 [0.75] 1.19 [0.19] 0.85 [0.22] 1.09 [0.64] 1.17 [0.11]

No

1 1 1 1 1

Family Type

Both biological parents

1 1 1 1 1

Single mother

1.50 [0.00] 1.48 [0.01] 1.04 [0.83] 1.00 [0.99] 1.02 [0.88]

Single father

1.58 [0.26] 2.00 [0.14] 0.69 [0.56] 0.51 [0.51] 1.01 [0.99]

Mother and stepfather

0.91 [0.67] 1.29 [0.26] 0.97 [0.91] 1.23 [0.48] 1.61 [0.00]

Father and stepmother

0.45 [0.08] 0.88 [0.76] 1.10 [0.79] 0.70 [0.56] 0.84 [0.60]

Others (relatives and non-relatives)

0.98 [0.96] 0.87 [0.71] 0.97 [0.94] 1.53 [0.38] 1.68 [0.05]

Mother's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.04 [0.74] 0.77 [0.06] 1.07 [0.56] 1.25 [0.22] 0.96 [0.67]

Some college

1.05 [0.76] 0.99 [0.95] 1.06 [0.76] 1.15 [0.60] 0.77 [0.14]

College graduate

1.26 [0.21] 0.55 [0.09] 1.44 [0.06] 1.12 [0.70] 0.91 [0.63]

Father's Education Attainment

High school dropout

1 1 1 1 1

High school graduate

1.24 [0.06] 1.14 [0.34] 1.12 [0.36] 1.30 [0.14] 1.17 [0.11]

Some college

1.19 [0.30] 1.25 [0.34] 1.08 [0.66] 1.51 [0.09] 0.95 [0.74]

College graduate

1.21 [0.22] 0.80 [0.43] 1.13 [0.46] 1.02 [0.93] 0.85 [0.33]
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes at age 33 by Age of Alcohol Initiation

Marriage and Fertility Outcome At age 33

Age of Alcohol Initiation
11-15 16-17 18-19 not by age 19

Never married without children

0.164 0.139 0.154 0.149

Never married with children

0.071 0.096 0.092 0.083

Married without children

0.104 0.117 0.116 0.112

Married with children

0.437 0.445 0.428 0.459

Married but divorced without children

0.051 0.046 0.048 0.037

Married but divorced with children

0.173 0.156 0.162 0.160
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes at age 33 by Age of Marijuana Initiation

Marriage and Fertility Outcome At age 33

Age of Marijuana Initiation
11-15 16-17 18-19 not by age 19

Never married without children

0.145 0.167 0.150 0.145

Never married with children

0.093 0.091 0.069 0.089

Married without children

0.120 0.108 0.119 0.112

Married with children

0.431 0.428 0.446 0.450

Married but divorced without children

0.045 0.042 0.064 0.044

Married but divorced with children

0.166 0.164 0.152 0.160
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes at age 33 by Age of Cocaine Initiation

Marriage and Fertility Outcome At age 33

Age of Cocaine Initiation
11-15 16-17 18-19 not by age 19

Never married without children

0.256 0.238 0.212 0.141

Never married with children

0.130 0.062 0.100 0.088

Married without children

0.068 0.151 0.131 0.111

Married with children

0.358 0.300 0.360 0.454

Married but divorced without children

0.067 0.049 0.059 0.045

Married but divorced with children

0.121 0.200 0.138 0.162
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes at age 33 by Age of Sex Initiation

Marriage and Fertility Outcome At age 33

Age of Sex Initiation
11-15 16-17 18-19 not by age 19

Never married without children

0.093 0.119 0.166 0.284

Never married with children

0.112 0.087 0.075 0.042

Married without children

0.089 0.100 0.116 0.149

Married with children

0.416 0.448 0.465 0.429

Married but divorced without children

0.046 0.056 0.044 0.034

Married but divorced with children

0.242 0.191 0.134 0.062
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes at age 33 by number of Crimes/delinquencies in 1980

Marriage and Fertility Outcome At age 33

Number of Crimes/Delinquencies in 1980
9+ 3-8 1-2 0 >

Never married without children

0.173 0.145 0.158 0.139

Never married with children

0.126 0.093 0.082 0.075

Married without children

0.103 0.107 0.120 0.117

Married with children

0.396 0.430 0.432 0.469

Married but divorced without children

0.045 0.056 0.045 0.042

Married but divorced with children

0.158 0.169 0.163 0.158
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes at age 33 by family structure

Marriage and Fertility Outcome At age 33

Family Type
Both Biological parents Single Mother Single Father Mother and Stepfather Father and Stepmother Others (relatives and non-relatives)

Never married without children

0.147 0.194 0.209 0.124 0.077 0.133

Never married with children

0.083 0.106 0.134 0.093 0.084 0.066

Married without children

0.114 0.107 0.074 0.103 0.144 0.101

Married with children

0.450 0.405 0.414 0.406 0.508 0.404

Married but divorced without children

0.047 0.042 0.022 0.052 0.037 0.063

Married but divorced with children

0.158 0.146 0.146 0.223 0.150 0.232
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility and Outcomes at age 33 by Mother's Educational Attainment

Marriage and Fertility Outcome At age 33

Mother's Educational Attainment
High School Dropout High School Graduates Some College College Graduate

Never married without children

0.144 0.150 0.153 0.173

Never married with children

0.097 0.079 0.099 0.058

Married without children

0.105 0.112 0.112 0.142

Married with children

0.444 0.445 0.453 0.430

Married but divorced without children

0.041 0.050 0.048 0.044

Married but divorced with children

0.169 0.164 0.135 0.153
Probabilities of Marital and Fertility Outcomes at age 33 by Father's Educational Attainment

Marriage and Fertility Outcome At age 33

Father's Educational Attainment
High School Dropout High School Graduates Some College College Graduate

Never married without children

0.138 0.155 0.152 0.165

Never married with children

0.100 0.102 0.114 0.084

Married without children

0.106 0.108 0.107 0.117

Married with children

0.452 0.413 0.425 0.452

Married but divorced without children

0.040 0.047 0.057 0.041

Married but divorced with children

0.163 0.174 0.146 0.141