The remainder of this literature review is organized into six chapters. Chapter Two, An Overview of Community Coalitions, reviews the functions and key theories of community coalitions, and also identifies characteristics that facilitate coalition functioning and effectiveness. Chapter Three, Assessing the Impacts of Community Coalitions, discusses methodological challenges in evaluating the impacts of community coalitions and highlights some examples of coalitions that have demonstrated impacts. Chapter Four, Sustainability of Community Coalitions includes operational definitions of sustainability of community coalitions, models, predictors, barriers, and the role of evaluation in promoting sustainability. Chapter Five, A Conceptual Framework to Assess the Sustainability of Community Coalitions Once Initial Federal Funding has Expired, provides a conceptual framework for assessing the sustainability of community coalitions. Finally, Chapter Six, Conclusions and Implications, summarizes major conclusions and discusses the pragmatic and policy implications of the findings.