Outcomes are the conditions to be achieved by the community coalition. The coalition may have long-term outcomes regardless whether the coalition itself has been sustained. The impacts are the cumulative effects of these outcomes at multiple levels in the community. For the purposes of this assessment, there are three types of impacts:
Individual impacts are changes in health or behavior at the person level. Some community coalitions may have focused on changing individual behavior—tobacco use, utilizing screening tests, healthy weight, and disease prevention.
Systems impacts are changes in infrastructure or capacity at the community level. This can include the implementation of new systems (e.g., data sharing or integrated data systems, electronic medical records, financial management information systems, standardized registry systems, screening and eligibility systems), clinics, and other infrastructure that have community-level impacts.
Policy impacts are changes in policy at the local, state, and federal levels.
In Exhibit 5.3, an arrow between Outcomes and Enabling Characteristics of the Community Coalition shows the presence of organizational learning. Coalitions are dynamic by nature, and therefore, their outcomes affect their characteristics.