Literature Review and Environmental Scan: Evaluation of Personal Health Records Pilots for Fee-for-Service Medicare Enrollees. Citations

08/01/2009


  • § [1] Similar to a credit card in shape and size, a PHR smart card can be swiped by a health care provider to obtain the patient’s personal health information. The card can be updated when a patient sees a provider. Supporters of smart cards for PHRs cite that sophisticated data encryption and a two-factor authentication process provide a high level of security and have the potential to reduce fraud. To access the PHR, the person must have the card (which includes a personal photo) and the patient’s personal identification number (PIN). Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City has been working closely with Siemens, a technology solutions firm, since 2004 to develop a Patient Health Card. In February 2007, Mount Sinai Medical Center began deploying smart cards as part of a 10-institution pilot program. Other states with smart card programs under development are Florida, Texas, New York, and Pennsylvania. (See citation #12).
  • [2]The phrase, “Below basic health literacy” refers to literacy skills that are inadequate to complete more than the most simple and concrete literacy tasks; “basic literacy” is defined as literacy skills adequate to perform simple and everyday literacy activities.
  • [3] A health expense management application can help consumers assess and manage healthcare expenditures (e.g., paying bills) and assist with future healthcare decision-making (e.g., choice of a health plan).
  • [4] Forrester Research surveyed 2,100 adults aged 18 and older, nationally during the summer of 2005 via a telephone based instrument. The survey was conducted in Spanish and English. The final sample included 1,000 residents of the continental U.S. and an oversampling of 1,000 residents of California. An oversample of 100 people with HIV or substance abuse conditions was included.
  • [5] Plan-to-plan portability may only ensure that the claims associated with the multiple visits are aggregated within a PHR, but not the clinical or other non-claim information. In order to gather a patient’s information from multiple providers, EHR-PHR information exchange can be also be done through the CCD.
  • [6] AHIC defines the care coordinator as an individual who supports the clinician in managing the patient’s health.
  • [7] HITSP incorporated the registration summary into the 2007 interoperability criteria for the certification of ambulatory EHRs. Specifically, one of HITSP’s categories addressed receipt of the registration summary from the patient and import into the EHR.


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  • [19] Ibid.
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  • Back to Top

    [25] Lazarus and Mora, "Online Content for Low-Income and Underserved Americans: The Digital Divide's New Frontier. A Strategic Audit of Activities and Opportunities."

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  • [68] Ibid.
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  • [77] Nichols.
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  • [83] Ibid.
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  • [85] Ibid.
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  • [141] Ibid.
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  • [145] Ibid.
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  • [158] Ibid.
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  • [160] Ibid.
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  • [171] Ibid.
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  • [175] Scriban.
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  • [177] Ibid.
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  • [179] Ibid.
  • [180] Ibid.
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  • [185] "PHR-System Functional Model, Release 1 Dstu."
  • [186] Ibid.
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  • [188] L. Gallagher, "Privacy and Security Issues for PHRs. ," Health Information and Management Systems Society, http://www.himss.org/content/files/PHRPrivSecCOO-LGV1.0.pdf.
  • [189] "Review of the Personal Health Record Service Provider Market: Privacy and Security," Altarum, http://www.hhs.gov/healthit/ahic/materials/01_07/ce/PrivacyReview.pdf.
  • [190] Ibid.
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  • [192] Ibid.
  • [193] Gellman, "Personal Health Records: Why Many PHRs Threaten Privacy."
  • [194] Goldman, "Personal Health Records: Employers Proceed with Caution ".
  • [195] William Bernstein et al., "Whose Data Is It Anyway? Expanding Consumer Control over Personal Health Information," in Issue Brief, ed. California Health Care Foundation (California Health Care Foundation, 2008).
  • [196] "Personal Health Records and Personal Health Record Systems."
  • [197] Ibid.
  • [198] R Lecker et al., "Review of Personal Health Record (PHR) Service Provider Market Privacy and Security," ed. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Department of Health and Human Services (2007).
  • [199] Gellman, "Personal Health Records: Why Many PHRs Threaten Privacy."
  • [200] Bernstein et al., "Whose Data Is It Anyway? Expanding Consumer Control over Personal Health Information."
  • [201] Ibid.
  • [202] "Privacy and Confidentiality in the Nationwide Health Information Network," (National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 2006).
  • [203] Ibid.
  • [204] Ibid.
  • [205] Ibid.
  • [206] Ibid.
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  • [208] "Privacy and Confidentiality in the Nationwide Health Information Network."
  • [209] "Personal Health Records and Personal Health Record Systems."
  • [210] "Review of the Personal Health Record Service Provider Market: Privacy and Security."
  • [211] Ibid.
  • [212] Gellman, "Personal Health Records: Why Many PHRs Threaten Privacy."
  • [213] "Innovations in Health Care Delivery", (paper presented at the FTC Public Workshop, Washington, DC, April 24, 2008 2008).
  • [214] "Microsoft Healthvault Beta Version Privacy Statement," Microsoft Corporation, https://account.healthvault.com/help.aspx?topicid=PrivacyPolicy
  • [215] Ibid.
  • [216] Ibid.
  • [217] Ibid.
  • [218] Ibid.
  • [219] "Privacy Statement," Elder Issues, http://www.elderissues.com/pages/index.cfm?fuseaction=customerservice&CFID=92501113&CFTOKEN=92444035&x=9871322.
  • [220] C. Broder, "Insurers Plan Interoperable PHRs," Healthcare IT News, http://www.healthcareitnews.com.
  • [221] Ibid.
  • [222] "Best Practices for Employers Offering Personal Health Records (PHRs)," (Health Privacy Project and the California Health Care Foundation, 2007).
  • [223] Broder, "Insurers Plan Interoperable PHRs."
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  • [226] Ibid.
  • [227] ACC/ HIMSS/ RSNA, "IHE It Infrastructure Technical Framework, Supplement 2006-2007: Cross-Enterprise Document Media Interchange (XDM)," Integrating the Health Enterprise, http://www.ihe.net.
  • [228] Ibid.
  • [229] Ibid.
  • [230] "HITSP Document Reliable Interchange Transaction".
  • [231] Ibid.
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  • [239] Ibid.
  • [240] Ibid.
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  • [246] Ibid.
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  • [255] Ibid.
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  • [257] Ibid.
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  • [260] Ibid.
  • [261] Lober et al., "Barriers to the Use of a Personal Health Record by an Elderly Population."
  • [262] Tang and Lansky, "The Missing Link: Bridging the Patient- Provider Health Information Gap."
  • [263] Jan Oldenburg, November 1 2007.
  • [264] Tang et al., "Personal Health Records: Definitions, Benefits, and Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Adoption."
  • [265] Ibid.
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  • [271] Ibid.
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  • [286] Oldenburg.
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  • [315] Ibid.
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  • [317] Hoover, "Get Well Soon: Fed up with Rising Health Care Costs, Intel, Wal-Mart, and Others Think Giving Employees Digital Records Will Help."
  • [318] Ibid.
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  • [320] Ibid.
  • [321] Ibid.
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  • [330] Ibid.
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