Leavers, Stayers, and Cyclers An Analysis of the Welfare Caseload. Economic Status

11/01/2002

Table 11 presents data on income and material hardship for stayers in the program and control groups. Stayers in the program groups were somewhat less likely to be poor, and they were somewhat more likely to have been working at the time of the survey; 28.3 percent of program group stayers reported earnings in the prior month, compared with 21.2 percent of control group stayers. The next section illustrates that this difference in earnings and employment is driven by the incentives programs. There are few other notable differences between the two groups of stayers.

Table 11
How Programs Have Affected Stayers:
Household Income and Material Hardship
 
Characteristics Program Control
Difference between Program and Control
Income and Poverty in the Month Before the Survey
Total Income ($) 1.237 1.230 7.6
Poverty status (%)
Income below poverty
61.3 66.0 -4.7 **
Income below 50% of poverty 7.7 7.5 0.2
Household income sources (%)
AFDC/TANF 89.3 91.9 -2.6 **
Food Stamps 89.8 92.5 -2.7 **
Child support 11.2 11.0 0.2
Other income 36.7 33.4 3.3 **
Respondent's earnings 28.3 21.2 7.1 **
Other household earnings 18.2 17.4 0.8
Household composition (%)
Currently married 4.9 3.5 1.4 **
Not married, but other adults in household
12.5 15.4 -2.9 **
Material Hardship
Material hardship in prior year (%)
Did not pay full amount of rent/mortgage
26.3 28.0 -1.7
Evicted for not paying rent/mortgage
4.7 6.0 -1.3
Did not pay full amount for utilities
46.8 40.6 6.2 **
Utilities shut off 11.0 16.1 -5.1 **
Telephone shut off 27.5 31.3 -3.8 *
Could not see doctor 8.8 9.5 -0.7
Could not see dentist 13.5 14.4 -0.9
Number of hardships 1.4 1.5 -0.1
Food insufficient in prior month (%) 15.6 16.8 -1.2
Sample size 3.257 2.129  
SOURCE:  MDRC calculations from survey data from the evaluations listed in Table 1.  
NOTES:  The data are weighted to reflect the size of the welfare caseload in each state.

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