The environmental scan consisted of three types of searches: (1) audience segmentation methods used in public health, (2) service-user typology methods used to study homeless and public housing populations, and (3) subgrouping methods used in evaluations of fatherhood programs. We deemed eligible and therefore reviewed 14 studies (of 63 found) on audience segmentation, 8 service-user typology studies (of 95 found), and the 12 high quality impact studies identified by a recent review of evidence-based family strengthening programs (Avellar et al. 2011; Avellar et al. 2012). (For greater detail on our approach to searching, screening, selecting, and reviewing research, see Appendix A.) The project team developed a standard study review template designed to capture key data from each study. The template was piloted and refined according to feedback from all team members before its use for the reviews. For each study reviewed in the scan, in addition to any identifying information, we documented the following:
· Conceptual approach to defining subgroups
· How subgroups were created
· Specific constructs and variables used to create subgroups
In addition, in preparing for our upcoming review of the literature on psychosocial determinants of behavior change (in general, and specifically relating to outcomes targeted by fatherhood programs), we identified psychosocial variables that may be used in creating subgroups potentially relevant to fathers and fatherhood programs.