Inside the Black Box of Interactions Between Programs and Participants: Re-conceptualizing Subgroups for Fatherhood Program Evaluation. APPENDIX E: LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS

10/12/2012

Table E.1. Personal History: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

Variables

Study Citation

Significant Association with …

Analyses Conducted Were…

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-Being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Quality of Parenting Received As a Child

Constructive parenting

Kerr et al. 2009

Yes

Yes

Yes

Harsh discipline

Jaffee et al. 2001

No

Yes

Yes

Inconsistent discipline

Jaffee et al. 2001

No

Yes

Yes

Physical abuse as a child

Coohey, 2000

No

Yes

No

History of child maltreatment

Locke et al. 2004

Yes

No

Yes

No

Experienced maltreatment in childhood

Ferrari, 1999

Yes

Yes

No

Quality and effectiveness of discipline

Capaldi et al. 2008

Yes

Yes

Yes

Abusive and explosive discipline practices

Patterson et al. 1991

Yes

Yes

Yes

Residence with Parents or Caretakers in Childhood

Number of caretaker changes

Jaffee et al. 2001

No

Yes

Yes

Number of years living with a single mother

Jaffee et al. 2001

No

Yes

Yes

Whether lived with own father while growing up

Vogel et al. 2003

Yes

No

No

Number of years lived with biological father

Shields, 1998

Yes

Yes

Yes

Quality of Relationship with Parents During Childhood

Parent-child relationship quality

Jaffee et al. 2001

Yes

Yes

Yes

Family conflict

Jaffee et al. 2001

No

Yes

Yes

Paternal attachment

Wright, 2004

Yes

No

No

Quality of relationship with own father

Wright, 2004

Yes

Yes

No

Perceived similarities between father's and own parenting styles

Wright, 2004

Yes

Yes

No

Perceived similarities with father

Shields, 1998

Yes

Yes

Yes

Acceptance by mother

Shannon et al. 2005

Yes

Yes

No

Acceptance by father

Shannon et al. 2005

Yes

Yes

No

Childhood relationship with mother

Dechman, 1994

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Childhood relationship with father

Dechman, 1994

No

No

Yes

No

Relationship with own father and perception of self as father in comparison

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

No

Yes

No

Father contact with own father

Levine Coley et al. 2006

No

Yes

No

Quality of fathers' relationship with own parents during childhood

Vogel et al. 2003

Yes

No

No

Relationship with father

Boyce et al. 2007

No

Yes

No

Relationship with mother

Boyce et al. 2007

No

Yes

No

Over protection

Boyce et al. 2007

No

Yes

No

Adult Attachment

Secure attachment

Paquette et al. 2000

Yes

Yes

No

Relationship anxiety

Roggman et al. 2002

No

Yes

Yes

Psychological Well-Being and Adjustment as a Child

History of conduct disorder

Jaffee et al. 2001

Yes

Yes

Yes

History of depression

Jaffee et al. 2001

No

Yes

Yes

Childhood aggression

Temcheff, 2008

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Childhood withdrawal

Temcheff, 2008

No

No

Yes

Yes

Own parent's alcohol and drug related problems

Locke et al. 2004

No

No

No

No

Note: None of the studies reviewed estimated the effects of fathers' personal history on employment or child support outcomes.

Table E.2. Identity: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

Significant Association with …

Analyses Conducted Were…

Variables

Study Citation

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-Being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Personality

Neuroticism

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Ego defense styles

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

 

No

Yes

No

Neuroticism

Sloper et al. 1993

No

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Negative emotionality

Jaffee, 2001

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Positive emotionality

Jaffee, 2001

No

 

 

Yes

No

Constraint

Jaffee, 2001

No

 

 

Yes

No

Interpersonal affect

Fagan, 1996

No

 

 

Yes

No

Religiosity

Guzell, 2001

No

 

 

Yes

No

Self-Esteem

Self-esteem

Dechman, 1994

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Self-esteem

Frost, 1997

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Self-esteem

Fagan, 1998

Yes[4]

 

 

Yes

No

Self-esteem

Fagan, 1996

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Antisocial Behavior

Antisocial behavior

Capaldi et al. 2008

No

 

 

No

Yes

Antisocial Behavior

Florsheim et al. 1999

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Antisocial behavior

Patterson et al. 1991

No

 

 

Yes

Yes

Types of criminal offenses

Jaffee et al. 2001

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Criminal convictions

Jaffee et al. 2001

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Psychiatric Health

History of conduct disorder

Johnson et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

History of anxiety disorder

Johnson et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

History of depressive disorder

Johnson et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

History of antisocial personality disorder

Johnson et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

History of substance use disorder

Johnson et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

Identity as a Parent

Identification with a procreative role

Bialik, 2011

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

No

Role as a parent includes preparing child for school

Freeman et al. 2008

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Perception of self as father in comparison with own father

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

No

 

 

Yes

No

Satisfaction with time spent with children

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Satisfaction with custody arrangement

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Parental role strain

Bowman et al. 1997

Yes

Yes

 

No

No

Identity as a Provider

Primary provider strain

Bowman et al. 1997

No

Yes

 

No

No

Co-provider attitude

Bowman et al. 1997

No

No

 

No

No

Identity as a Man

Gender role attitudes (Machismo)

Ferrari, 1999

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Attitudes towards gender roles

Caputo, 2006

 

No

 

Yes

Yes

Sex role

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

 

No

Yes

No

Identification with Mexican heritage

Coltrane et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Notes: None of the studies reviewed estimated the effects of fathers' identity on child support outcomes.

Measures of gender-role attitudes tap how the father views himself as a man. Studies examining general gender-role attitudes are listed in Table II.F. Cognitions, under the Gender-Role Attitudes subheading.

 

Table E.3. Values and Lifestyle: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

Significant Association with …

Analyses Conducted Were…

Variables

Study Citation

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-Being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Family Activities

Family rituals

Coltrane et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Activities With Child

Engagement at birth of child

Knoester et al. 2007

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Change in engagement

Knoester et al. 2007

 

 

Yes[5]

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Frequency of activities

Castillo, 2010

 

 

 

No

 

Yes

No

Frequency of activities

Castillo, 2009

 

 

 

No

 

Yes

No

Activities with child

Holmes, 2010

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Father activities with children

Roggman et al. 2002

Yes

 

 

 

 

No

No

Daily involvement in care of the child

Guzell, 2001

No

 

 

 

 

No

No

Religious and Civic Activities

Religious activity

Roggman et al. 2002

No

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Religious affiliation

Caputo, 2006

 

No

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Religious activity

Caputo, 2006

 

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Religious involvement

Wilcox et al. 2001

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Religious socialization

Bowman et al. 1997

No

No

 

 

 

No

No

Civic participation

Wilcox et al. 2001

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Job Characteristics

Employment status and work schedule

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Work hours

Formoso et al. 2007

No

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Work hours

Roggman et al. 2002

No

 

 

 

 

No

Yes

Occupational self direction

Goodman et al. 2008

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Job involves caregiving

Goodman et al. 2008

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Occupational complexity

Whitbeck et al. 1997

 

 

 

 

No

Yes

Yes

Job autonomy

Whitbeck et al. 1997

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Work flexibility

Shields, 1998

No

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Table E.4. Stress and Coping: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

Significant Association with …

Analyses Conducted Were…

Variables

Study Citation

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-Being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Life Stressors

Stressors

Coohey, 2000

No

 

 

 

No

No

Stressors

Anderson et al. 2005

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Life stress

Hoard et al. 2004

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Stressful life events

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Acute stress

Conger et al. 1995

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Yes

Stressful events

Rienks et al. 2011

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Life events strain

Sloper et al. 1993

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Stressful life events

Proctor, 2005

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

No

Other Specific Stressors

Exposure to community violence

Proctor, 2005

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

No

Job demands (work hours, job pressure, role overload)

Bumpus et al. 1999

Yes

 

 

 

No

No

Role overload

Goodman et al. 2008

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Financial Stress

Monetary stress

Bowman et al. 1997

No

Yes

 

 

No

No

Perceived income inadequacy

Bowman et al. 1997

Yes

Yes

 

 

No

No

Perceptions of financial stress

Coltrane et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Perceived economic hardship

Gonzales et al. 2011

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Financial stress

Thornberry et al. 2003

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Financial difficulties

Flouri et al. 2003

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Economic Pressure

Whitbeck et al. 1997

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Parenting Stress

Parenting stress and aggravation

Bronte-Tinkew et al. 2010

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Parental stress

Paquette et al. 2000

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Parental distress

Vogel et al. 2003

Yes

Yes

 

 

No

No

Parent-child dysfunctional interaction

Vogel et al. 2003

Yes

Yes

 

 

No

No

Parental stress

Whipple et al. 1991

No

 

 

 

No

No

Depressive Symptoms or Psychological Distress

Psychological distress

Coley et al. 2006

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Psychological distress

Proctor, 2005

No

 

 

 

No

No

Depressive symptoms

Roggman et al. 2002

No

 

 

 

No

Yes

Depressive symptoms

Cabrera et al. 2009

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Depressive symptoms

Bronte-Tinkew et al. 2010

No

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

Stress-related paternal depression

Conger et al. 1995

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Depressive symptoms

Vogel et al. 2003

Yes

Yes

 

 

No

No

Depressive symptoms

Chambers, 2004

 

Yes

 

 

No

No

Depressive symptoms

Ash, 1999

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

No

Parental depression & anxiety

Whipple et al. 1991

No

 

 

 

No

No

Anxiety and depression

Rienks et al. 2011

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Well-Being

Well-being

Dechman, 1994

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Coping

Coping efficacy

Rienks et al. 2011

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Coping strategies

Sloper et al. 1993

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Coping strategies

Roggman et al. 2002

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Note: None of the studies including stress and coping predictors examined employment or child support outcomes.

Table E.5. Knowledge: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

Significant Association with …

Analyses Conducted Were…

Variable

Study Citation

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Knowledge about infant development

Guzell, 2001

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

 

Table E.6. Cognitions: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

Significant Association with …

Analyses Conducted Were…

Variables

Study Citation

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-Being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Parenting Attitudes

Attitude towards the use of harsh discipline

Coohey, 2000

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Valuing of children

Ferrari, 1999

Yes[6]

 

 

 

Yes

No

Severity ratings of vignettes depicting child maltreatment

Ferrari, 1999

Yes

 

 

 

No

No

Happy to have had a child

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Positive attitude toward fathering

Knoester et al. 2007

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Change in positive attitude toward fathering

Knoester et al. 2007

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gender Role Attitudes

Sex role egalitarianism

Shields, 1998

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Gender traditionalism

Coltrane et al. 2004

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Whether tasks related to children are men's responsibility

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Co-involved child care attitude

Bowman et al. 1997

No

No

 

 

No

No

Attitudes Toward Marriage or Relationships

Attitudes towards marriage

Caputo, 2006

 

No

 

 

Yes

Yes

Distrust of opposite sex

Caputo, 2006

 

No

 

 

Yes

Yes

Work-Related Attitudes

Job satisfaction, job involvement

Paquette et al. 2000

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Self-Efficacy

Father efficacy

Freeman et al. 2008

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Feelings of incompetence

Frost, 1997

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Parental self-efficacy

Guzell, 2001

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Responsibility/Perceived Control

Perceived control over caregiving outcomes

Guzell, 2001

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Responsibility for child's learning

Freeman et al. 2008

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

No

Parent cognition: child-responsible factor

Snarr et al. 2009

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

No

Parent cognition: parent-causal factor

Snarr et al. 2009

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

No

No

Partner cognition: partner-responsible factor

Snarr et al. 2009

Yes

Yes

 

 

No

No

Partner cognition: self-causal factor

Snarr et al. 2009

Yes

Yes

 

 

No

No

Belief that own economic situation will dictate child's future (used to predict depression)

Ash, 1999

 

 

 

 

No

No

No

Perceived Outcomes

Expectations about pregnancy and fatherhood

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

No

Notes: None of the studies reviewed examined employment or child support outcomes.

Measures of gender-role attitudes tap general gender-role attitudes. Studies examining how the father views himself as a man are listed in Table II.C. Identity,

under the Identity as a Man subheading.

 

Table E.7. Social Norms: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

Variables

Study Citation

Significant Association with …

Analyses Conducted Were…

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-Being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Acceptance of negative stereotypes about African American men

Shields, 1998

No

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Internalized negative stereotypes about African Americans

Wright, 2004

No

 

 

 

 

No

No

Neighborhood familism

Gonzales et al. 2011

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Note: None of the studies reviewed estimated the effects of social norms on couple relationship, employment, child support, or father well-being outcomes.

 

Table E.8. Relationship with Child's Mother: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

Significant Association with…

Analyses Conducted Were…

Variable

Study Citation

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-Being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Negative Partner Characteristics

Negative partner characteristics

Coohey, 2000

No

 

Yes

No

Conflict

Areas of conflict

Caputo, 2006

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Marital concerns

Frost, 1997

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Relationship disagreement

Bronte-Tinkew et al. 2010

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Level of hostility

Florsheim et al. 1999

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Domestic tension

Flouri et al. 2003

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Couple conflict

Cabrera et al. 2009

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Partner violence

Jaffee et al. 2001

Yes

 

Yes

No

Communication

Negative communication

Rienks et al. 2011

No

 

Yes

No

Communication danger signs

Rienks et al. 2011

No

 

Yes

No

Relationship Quality

Quality of relationship

Shannon et al. 2005

No

 

Yes

No

Love for mother

Fagan, 1996

No

 

Yes

No

Relationship quality

Dush et al. 2011

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Marital happiness

Frost, 1997

 

 

No

Yes

Yes

Marital relationship quality

Whipple et al. 1991

No

 

No

No

Relationship with partner

Castillo, 2010

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Relationship with partner

Castillo, 2009

 

 

Yes[7]

Yes

No

Overall happiness

Cabrera et al. 2009

Yes

No

Yes

No

Partner closeness

Mitchell, 2008

No

 

Yes

No

Relationship adjustment

Rienks et al. 2011

No

 

Yes

No

Relationship quality

Knoester et al. 2007

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Interpersonal behavior with partner

Moore, 2003

No

Yes

No

Yes

Quality of romantic relationship

Gavin et al. 2002

Yes

 

Yes

No

Relationship quality

Kalil et al. 2005

Yes

 

Yes

No

Partner's supportiveness

Coohey, 2000

No

 

Yes

No

Relationship quality

Caputo, 2006

 

No

Yes

Yes

Relationship quality

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

No

Yes

No

Perceived caring

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

No

Yes

No

Relationship Satisfaction

Relationship satisfaction

Rienks et al. 2011

No

 

Yes

No

Relationship Satisfaction

Shields, 1998

No

 

Yes

No

Relationship satisfaction

Moore, 2003

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Satisfaction with relationship

Wright, 2004

Yes

 

No

No

Relationship satisfaction

Chambers, 2004

No

 

No

Yes

Marital satisfaction

Sloper et al. 1993

No

 

No

No

No

Marital satisfaction

Bumpus et al. 1996

Yes

 

No

No

Quality of Co-Parental Relationship

Co-parenting conflict

Mitchell, 2008

Yes

 

Yes

No

Co-parenting conflict

Anderson et al. 2005

 

 

No

Yes

No

Father-mother conflict surrounding parenting

Levine Coley et al. 2006

Yes

 

Yes

No

Parenting alliance

Formoso et al. 2007

Yes

 

Yes

No

Interparental conflict

Formoso et al. 2007

Yes

 

Yes

No

Interparental conflict

Cabrera et al. 2009

Yes

 

Yes

No

Parenting alliance

Rienks et al. 2011

Yes

 

Yes

No

Parenting alliance

Bialik, 2011

 

 

No

Yes

No

Coparental relationship status

Holmes, 2010

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Nature or Status of Relationship

Relationship status

Holmes, 2010

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Nature of relationship

Dush et al. 2011

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Nature/status

Cabrera et al. 2004

Yes

 

Yes

No

Marital status

Goodman et al. 2008

No

 

Yes

No

Living arrangement

Florsheim et al. 1999

 

 

No

Yes

Yes

Family structure

Cabrera et al. 2009

Yes

No

Yes

No

Marital status

Coohey, 2000

No

 

Yes

No

Length of relationship

Coohey, 2000

No

 

Yes

No

Breakup with child's mother

Knoester et al. 2007

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Marital status

Bronte-Tinkew et al. 2010

No

No

Yes

No

Relationship status

Cabrera et al. 2008

Yes

 

Yes

No

Type of union at birth

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

No

 

Yes

No

Years together before having children

Shields, 1998

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

 

Table E.9. Social Support: Predictors and Outcomes Examined in Articles Reviewed

 

 

Significant Association with…

Analyses Conducted Were…

Variables

Study Citation

Parenting?

Partner Relationship?

Employment?

Child Support?

Father Well-Being?

Multivariate?

Longitudinal?

Quality of Kin Relationships

Cohesive family relationship

Sloper et al. 1993

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Quality of extended family relationship

Mitchell, 2008

No

No

 

 

 

Yes

No

Father's Relationship with child's maternal grandmother

Gavin et al. 2002

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

New Partner Status

Formation of new relationship

Knoester et al. 2007

 

 

No

Yes

Yes

 

Former partner involved in a new romantic relationship

Dush et al. 2011

 

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

Father has new partner and/or child

Le Bourdais et al. 2002

No

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

 

Kin Support

Kin involvement with child

Coohey, 2000

No

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Kin emotional support

Coohey, 2000

No

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Instrumental support from extended family

Coohey, 2000

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Emotional support from friends

Coohey, 2000

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Friend instrumental support

Coohey, 2000

No

 

 

 

 

No

No

Friend Involvement with Children

Coohey, 2000

No

 

 

 

 

No

No

Involvement with family and friends

Castillo, 2010

 

 

 

No

 

Yes

No

Support For From Networks

Non-supportive work environment

Goodman et al. 2008

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

No

Involvement with public welfare institutions

Castillo, 2010

 

 

 

No

 

Yes

No

Involvement with public welfare institutions

Castillo, 2009

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

No

General Support Across Networks

Support from family, friends and community workers

Anderson et al. 2005

 

 

 

 

Yes[8]

Yes

No

Support from family, friends and community workers

Hoard et al. 2004 

 

 

 

 

Yes[9]

Yes

No

Financial support

Chambers, 2004

 

Yes

 

 

 

No

No

Amount of social support

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

 

 

No

Yes

No

Satisfaction with social support

Boyce et al. 2007

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Social support

Sloper et al. 1993

No

 

 

 

No

No

No

Social support

Wade et al. 2011

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

No

Note: None of the studies reviewed estimated the effects of social support on employment outcomes.

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