a Health Level 7 (HL7) provides standards for the exchange, management, and integration of data that support clinical patient care and the management, delivery, and evaluation of healthcare services http://www.hl7.org/. The National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP) is a nonprofit American National Standards Institute (ANSI)-accredited standards development organization that creates and promotes data interchange standards for the pharmacy services sector of the healthcare industry http://www.ncpdp.org/. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a developer and provider of voluntary consensus standards, related technical information, and services http://www.astm.org/. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) creates and maintains international standards for communication of biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic information http://medical.nema.org/dicom.html. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), is an international membership organization with a portfolio of standards programs http://www.ieee.org/. The Object Management Group (OMG) produces and maintains computer industry specifications for interoperable enterprise applications http://www.omg.org/.
b SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine) is a coded vocabulary that will allow for the full integration of electronic medical record information into a single data structure www.snomed.org. LOINC (Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes) provides a standard set of universal names and codes for identifying individual laboratory results, clinical observations, and diagnostic study observations http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc. MEDCIN includes more than 175,000 clinical data elements encompassing symptoms, history, physical examination, tests, diagnoses, and therapy http://www.medicomp.com/.
c For example, the International Organization for Standardization, which includes 140 countries http://www.iso.ch/; the Internet Engineering Task Force, which focuses on the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet http://www.ietf.org/; and W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), which develops common protocols for the Web to promote its evolution and to ensure interoperability http://www.w3.org/.
d Information on the activities of the Public Health Data Standards Consortium is available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/otheract/phdsc/phdsc.htm.
e Examples include the Anacostia/ Ward 8 Child Health Champion Collaborative http://www.epa.gov/reg3esd1/childhealth/special_%20original.htm, West Harlem Environmental Action http://www.weact.org/, and the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/LIBCSP.
f The $14 billion figure is for what Dr. Lee calls the Health Information and Communication for America Initiative, a broad 10-year initiative that includes statistical data management and enabling steps. See Lee PB, Abramovice BG, and Lee PR. January 2001. Written supplement to the testimony of Dr. Philip R. Lee at the joint hearings of the workgroups on the national health information infrastructure and health statistics for the 21st century, National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, San Francisco, California, October 30, 2000, p. 9.
gThe recommendations of the NCVHS are consistent with and an expansion of the recommendations contained in two publications: (1) Committee on Enhancing the Internet for Health Applications: Technical Requirements and Implementation Strategies, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council. 2000. Networking health: Prescriptions for the Internet. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available online at http://www.nap.edu/books/0309068436/html/ and (2) President's Information Technology Advisory Committee, Panel on Transforming Health Care. Transforming health care through information technology. February 2001. Available online at http://www.itrd.gov/pubs/pitac/pitac-hc-9feb01.pdf. NCVHS has called for the development of the NHII in several of its reports published since the late 1990s. The reports are available on the NCVHS Web site http://www.ncvhs.hhs.gov/reptrecs.htm.