Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2009-2013. INDICATOR 6. Dependence Transitions

04/01/2013

Figure IND 6. Dependency Status in 2007 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Annual Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2006 by Race and Ethnicity

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI. While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income. Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 panel.

  • Figure IND 6 shows the 2007 dependency status of persons who were welfare dependent in 2006 by race and ethnicity. Welfare dependence is defined as receiving more than half of one’s total family income in the year from TANF, FSP/SNAP, and/or SSI. For further discussion of defining welfare dependency, see Chapter I.
  • Of the recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total family income from TANF, FSP/SNAP, and/or SSI in 2006, 74.7 percent of Non-Hispanic Whites, 75.5 percent of Non-Hispanic Blacks, and 80.8 percent of Hispanics were welfare dependent in 2007.
  • Table IND 6a shows the 2007 dependency status of persons who were welfare dependent in 2006 by demographic groups. Men ages 16 to 64 who received more than half of their total income from means-tested assistance programs in 2006 remained dependent in 2007 in higher percentages than women.
  • Table IND 6b shows the dependency status of all persons who received more than 50 percent of their income from means-tested assistance programs in the previous year. Recipients of assistance from these three programs were more likely to move out of dependency status in the early 2000s than in the early 1990s.

Table IND 6a. Dependency Status in 2007 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2006 by Selected Characteristics

Persons Receiving More than 50 Percent of Income from Assistance in 2006
Total
(thousands)
Percentage of Persons Receiving
No aid in 2007
Up to 50% in 2007
Over 50% in 2007
All Persons 6,969 2.4 20.9 76.7
Racial/Ethnic Categories
Non-Hispanic White 2,495 3.4 21.9 74.7
Non-Hispanic Black 2,429 2.4 22.1 75.5
Hispanic 1,300 1.6 17.5 80.8
Age Categories
Children ages 0-5 913 3.1 18.4 78.5
Children ages 6-10 756 2.8 25.9 71.3
Children ages 11-15 893 0.0 23.8 76.2
Women ages 16-64 2,502 2.8 21.1 76.2
Men ages 16-64 1,389 3.3 17.5 79.2
Adults ages 65 and over 497 0.0 20.1 79.9

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI. While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income. Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Individual age categories do not add to total because of a small number of people not reporting age.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 panel.

Table IND 6b. Dependency Status of All Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in Previous Year

 
Total
(thousands)
Percentage of Persons Receiving
No aid in second year
Up to 50% in second year
Over 50% in second year
Transitions from:
1993 to 1994 14,810 1.6 18.6 79.8
1994 to 1995 13,986 2.7 18.8 78.5
1997 to 1998 9,672 3.1 28.8 68.1
1998 to 1999 8,163 2.9 27.1 70.0
2001 to 2002 6,258 1.5 29.2 69.3
2002 to 2003 6,023 2.6 25.8 71.6
2004 to 2005 7,682 4.1 31.7 64.2
2005 to 2006 7,339 2.4 24.2 73.5
2006 to 2007 6,969 2.4 20.9 76.7

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI. Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs. While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income in all years and veterans’ pension benefits are included in means-tested assistance income for receipt and dependence estimates prior to 2001. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, some transitions between 1994 and 1995 were based on twelve-month periods that did not correspond exactly to calendar years.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1993, 1996, 2001, and 2004 panels.

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