Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2009-2013. INDICATOR 2. Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

04/01/2013

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program: 2009

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2009, analyzed using the TRIM3
microsimulation model.
 
  • Figure IND 2 shows the average monthly percentage of recipients in families with labor force participants by program.19
    In 2009, SSI recipients were more likely to live in families with no labor force participants (58.9 percent) than were TANF recipients (43.3 percent) or SNAP recipients (38.0 percent). Sixty-two percent of SNAP recipients live in families with someone in the labor force.
  • Table IND 2a shows the average monthly percentage of recipients in families with labor force participants by program and demographic characteristics.
  • Among TANF recipients, Non-Hispanic Whites were less likely to live in families with at least one full-time worker (17.7 percent) than were Non-Hispanic Blacks (22.3 percent) or Hispanics of any race (35.9 percent).
  • Among TANF recipients, 41.2 percent of persons in married-couple families lived with at least one full-time worker compared to 19.6 percent of persons in female-headed families, and 31.8 percent of persons in male-headed families.
  • Table IND 2b shows the average monthly percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients living in families with labor force participants by year. The percentage of recipients living in families with at least one full-time worker increased from 18.8 percent in 1993 to 35.3 percent in 2001 and then declined to 26.0 percent in 2009.
Table IND 2a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program and Selected Characteristics: 2009
 
  No One in LF At Least One in LF, No One FT At Least One FT Worker
TANF All Persons 43.3 30.7 26.0
Non-Hispanic White 48.3 34.1 17.7
Non-Hispanic Black 49.4 28.4 22.3
Hispanic 32.8 31.3 35.9
Children ages 0-5 40.9 29.8 29.3
Children ages 6-10 44.3 29.9 25.9
Children ages 11-15 49.5 28.4 22.0
Women ages 16-64 45.0 31.2 23.8
Men ages 16-64 33.0 38.4 28.6
Adults ages 65 and over 86.4 0.0 13.6
Persons in married-couple families 23.6 35.3 41.2
Persons in female-headed families 52.2 28.2 19.6
Persons in male-headed families 33.2 34.9 31.8
Unrelated persons 34.9 53.4 11.8
SNAP All Persons 38.0 29.7 32.3
Non-Hispanic White 41.0 31.0 28.0
Non-Hispanic Black 40.9 28.7 30.4
Hispanic 30.0 28.4 41.6
Children ages 0-5 27.3 31.1 41.6
Children ages 6-10 27.4 30.5 42.1
Children ages 11-15 31.3 29.7 39.0
Women ages 16-64 41.0 30.3 28.7
Men ages 16-64 38.5 33.3 28.2
Adults ages 65 and over 84.9 8.0 7.1
Persons in married-couple families 22.8 29.8 47.4
Persons in female-headed families 38.3 31.1 30.6
Persons in male-headed families 31.2 33.7 35.1
Unrelated persons 71.8 23.5 4.7
SSI All Persons 58.9 13.7 27.4
Non-Hispanic White 63.0 13.9 23.1
Non-Hispanic Black 63.2 13.4 23.4
Hispanic 48.2 14.3 37.6
Children ages 0-5 33.3 25.0 41.8
Children ages 6-10 41.7 23.9 34.4
Children ages 11-15 39.7 21.8 38.5
Women ages 16-64 66.1 13.1 20.9
Men ages 16-64 57.4 14.0 28.6
Adults ages 65 and over 63.4 8.7 27.9
Persons in married-couple families 33.3 16.3 50.5
Persons in female-headed families 52.5 18.0 29.5
Persons in male-headed families 44.3 17.3 38.4
Unrelated persons 92.5 6.0 1.5

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month. Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2009, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 2b. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: 1993-2009

 

  No One in LF At Least One in LF, No One FT At Least One FT Worker
1993 57.0 24.2 18.8
1994 54.8 24.8 20.4
1995 50.6 24.3 25.1
1996 50.1 25.6 24.3
1997 47.6 28.0 24.4
1998 44.3 25.8 29.9
1999 40.8 24.1 35.1
2000 41.2 24.1 34.7
2001 38.7 26.0 35.3
2002 39.8 25.8 34.3
2003 47.4 24.1 28.5
2004 48.0 23.8 28.1
2005 47.7 25.4 26.9
2006 46.6 21.2 32.2
2007 46.4 23.4 30.2
2008 45.6 27.2 27.2
2009 43.3 30.7 26.0

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1994 - 2009, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


19 Note that lower family employment rates are reported in TANF administrative data, which are limited to the employment of family members in the TANF assistance unit and employment reported to welfare agencies (see Table TANF 7 in Appendix A).

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