Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2009-2013. INDICATOR 1. Degree of Dependence

04/01/2013

Figure IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 2009

Note: Means-tested assistance includes TANF, SSI and SNAP benefits. Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs. Income includes cash income and the value of SNAP benefits.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2010, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

  • Figure IND 1a shows the percentage of persons in families with varying degrees of dependence on the TANF, SNAP, and/or SSI programs in 2009.
  • The majority of persons (80.1 percent) lived in families that received no income from these means-tested assistance programs in 2009.
  • One-fifth (19.9 percent) of all persons lived in families that received some income from one of these programs during the year. Almost 5 (4.6) percent of persons lived in families that received more than half of their annual income from these means-tested assistance programs. These persons would be considered welfare dependent under the definition of dependence used in this report.18
  • Table IND 1a shows the percentage of persons in families with varying degrees of reliance on income from these programs by demographic characteristics. Welfare dependence varies across demographic groups.
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, Non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to be welfare dependent (11.1 percent) than were Non-Hispanic Whites (2.7 percent) or Hispanics of any race (7.1 percent).
  • Among age categories, children, particularly from birth to 5 years of age, were more likely to live in families that were welfare dependent than were persons age 16 and older.
  • Among family types, persons living in female-headed families were more likely to be welfare dependent than those in other family categories.
  • Table IND 1b shows trends in welfare dependence between 1993 and 2009. Welfare dependence was highest in 1993 at 5.9 percent, but then declined to 3.0 percent in 2000. After 2000, dependence increased steadily, reaching 4.6 percent in 2009.

Table IND 1a. Percentage of Total Annual Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs by Selected Characteristics: 2009

 

  0%
> 0% and<= 25%
> 25% and<= 50%
> 50% and<= 75%
> 75% and<=100%
Total >50%

All Persons

80.1 11.4 3.9 1.5 3.1 4.6
Racial/Ethnic Categories
Non-Hispanic White 86.7 8.2 2.4 0.8 1.9 2.7
Non-Hispanic Black 62.4 18.6 7.9 3.5 7.6 11.1
Hispanic 67.1 19.0 6.8 2.4 4.6 7.1
Age Categories
Children ages 0-5 65.7 17.1 8.1 3.2 5.8 9.1
Children ages 6-10 69.6 16.0 7.0 2.8 4.7 7.5
Children ages 11-15 72.6 15.1 6.0 2.3 4.1 6.3
Women ages 16-64 80.2 11.2 3.7 1.5 3.4 4.8
Men ages 16-64 84.0 10.3 2.6 0.8 2.4 3.2
Adults ages 65 and over 88.7 7.1 2.0 0.7 1.5 2.2
Family Categories
Persons in married-couple families 87.5 8.6 2.3 0.7 0.9 1.6
Persons in female-headed families 49.6 23.5 12.2 5.1 9.5 14.6
Persons in male-headed families 66.9 20.5 6.2 2.1 4.3 6.4
Unrelated persons 84.5 8.1 1.5 0.8 5.1 5.8

Note: Means-tested assistance includes TANF, SSI and SNAP. Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs. Income includes cash income and the value of SNAP benefits. Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2010, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 1b. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 1993-2009

 

  0%
0%> 0% and<= 25%
> 25% and <= 50% > 50% and <= 75%
> 75% and<= 100%
Total> 50%
1993 83.4 7.8 3.0 1.8 4.1 5.9
1994 82.8 8.4 3.1 1.8 4.0 5.8
1995 83.2 8.5 3.1 1.8 3.5 5.3
1996 84.0 7.8 3.1 1.9 3.3 5.2
1997 85.3 7.7 2.5 1.5 3.1 4.5
1998 86.5 7.3 2.5 1.3 2.5 3.8
1999 86.7 7.7 2.3 1.1 2.2 3.3
2000 87.5 7.3 2.2 1.0 2.0 3.0
2001 87.4 7.3 2.2 1.0 2.1 3.1
2002 86.8 7.8 2.3 1.0 2.1 3.2
2003 85.9 8.2 2.4 1.1 2.4 3.6
2004 85.0 8.8 2.5 1.1 2.5 3.7
2005 84.7 8.9 2.6 1.1 2.7 3.8
2006 84.4 9.3 2.6 1.1 2.6 3.7
2007 84.1 9.7 2.8 1.1 2.3 3.4
2008 82.9 10.3 2.8 1.1 2.8 4.0
2009 80.1 11.4 3.9 1.5 3.1 4.6

Note: Means-tested assistance includes TANF, SSI and SNAP. Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs. Income includes cash income and the value of SNAP benefits.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2010, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Figure IND 1b. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources by Poverty Status: 2009

Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of SNAP benefits. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest and dividends. Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive.
 
Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2010, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.
 
  • Figure IND 1b shows sources of income by poverty status in 2009. There is an association between poverty status and the percentage of total income received from the TANF, SNAP, and/or SSI programs. Those who are poorer are more likely to receive more of their income from these three sources than they are from wages.
  • Persons in families with incomes below the poverty line received 44.2 percent of their income from earnings and 35.8 percent from TANF, SNAP, and SSI. Persons in families with incomes at 200 percent or more of the poverty line received 85.8 percent of their income from earnings and 0.2 percent of their income from these means-tested assistance programs.
  • The percentage of family income that comes from earnings is directly proportional to overall family income relative to the poverty line. For example, the percentage of income received from earnings for persons in families living in deep poverty (below 50 percent of the poverty line) was 25.2 percent compared to 44.2 percent.
  • Table IND 1c shows the percentage of income from various sources by poverty status for various demographic groups. On average, persons in married-couple families and male heads of household rely on earnings more than do female heads of households.
  • Table IND 1d shows the percentage of income from various sources across selected years. The percentage of income received from earnings for persons in families with incomes below the poverty line increased from 40.4 percent in 1995 to a high of 49.5 percent in 2000. In 2009, the rate was 44.2 percent.
  • Over the same time period, the percentage of income from the AFDC/TANF, FSP/SNAP, and/or SSI programs among persons in poor families decreased from 41.3 percent in 1995 to 30.3 percent in 2000. In 2009, the rate was 35.8 percent.

Table IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources by Poverty Status and Selected Characteristics: 2009

  <50% Poverty <100% of Poverty <200% of Poverty 200%+ of Poverty
All
Persons
All Persons
TANF, SSI and SNAP 62.0 35.8 13.6 0.2 1.6
Earnings 25.2 44.2 62.8 85.8 83.4
Other income 12.8 20.0 23.6 14.0 15.0
Racial/Ethnic Categories
Non-Hispanic White 57.8 33.4 10.3 0.1 0.8
TANF, SSI and SNAP 27.2 40.0 58.1 84.8 83.0
Earnings 14.9 26.6 31.6 15.1 16.2
Other income
Non-Hispanic Black
TANF, SSI and SNAP 68.6 44.2 20.9 0.5 4.8
Earnings 18.2 33.8 55.3 85.6 79.1
Other income 13.2 22.0 23.8 13.9 16.0
Hispanic
TANF, SSI and SNAP 60.6 31.8 13.7 0.6 3.9
Earnings 29.3 56.1 74.2 89.6 85.7
Other income 10.1 12.1 12.1 9.7 10.3
Age Categories
Children ages 0-5
TANF, SSI and SNAP 66.9 39.3 17.6 0.2 3.2
Earnings 23.0 48.3 71.1 94.3 90.3
Other income 10.1 12.4 11.3 5.5 6.5
Children ages 6-10
TANF, SSI and SNAP 66.1 38.7 16.2 0.2 2.7
Earnings 23.4 47.6 70.8 93.4 89.8
Other income 10.5 13.7 13.1 6.4 7.5
Children ages 11-15
TANF, SSI and SNAP 65.0 39.4 15.6 0.2 2.4
Earnings 22.5 44.1 68.6 92.0 88.7
Other income 12.5 16.5 15.8 7.8 8.9
Women ages 16-64
TANF, SSI and SNAP 61.0 36.4 14.3 0.2 1.5
Earnings 25.3 43.2 65.4 88.8 86.7
Other income 13.7 20.3 20.3 10.9 11.8
Men ages 16-64
TANF, SSI and SNAP 54.0 30.9 11.0 0.2 1.0
Earnings 32.2 48.8 69.2 90.0 88.4
Other income 13.8 20.3 19.8 9.8 10.6
Adults ages 65 and over
TANF, SSI and SNAP 39.9 25.9 7.7 0.3 1.1
Earnings 10.1 8.4 11.1 40.0 36.9
Other income 50.0 65.7 81.2 59.7 62.0
Family Categories
Persons in married-couple families
TANF, SSI and SNAP 56.4 28.8 9.2 0.2 0.8
Earnings 34.1 56.0 71.3 86.9 85.8
Other income 9.6 15.2 19.5 13.0 13.4
Persons in female-headed families
TANF, SSI and SNAP 69.7 45.3 24.1 0.9 8.3
Earnings 17.3 35.6 54.2 80.6 72.2
Other income 13.0 19.1 21.7 18.5 19.5
Persons in male-headed families
TANF, SSI and SNAP 62.9 37.8 15.3 0.8 3.1
Earnings 23.3 41.0 63.2 86.7 83.0
Other income 13.8 21.2 21.4 12.5 13.9
 
Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of SNAP benefits. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest and dividends. Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive. Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories. Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.
 
Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2010, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.
 
Table IND 1d. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources: Selected Years
  < 50% Poverty
<100% of Poverty
<200% of Poverty 200%+ of Poverty
1995
AFDC, SSI and SNAP 65.9 41.3 14.2 0.3
Earnings 22.5 40.4 64.8 85.4
Other income 11.6 18.3 21.0 14.3
1998
AFDC, SSI and SNAP 58.9 32.0 10.6 0.2
Earnings 27.0 47.9 67.8 85.3
Other income 14.1 20.1 21.6 14.5
2000
TANF, SSI and SNAP 54.3 30.3 9.8 0.2
Earnings 30.5 49.5 68.7 86.7
Other income 15.2 20.3 21.5 13.0
2004
TANF, SSI and SNAP 58.4 31.1 10.4 0.2
Earnings 25.7 48.2 67.2 86.8
Other income 15.9 20.7 22.4 13.0
2005
TANF, SSI and SNAP 58.5 32.5 10.4 0.2
Earnings 25.3 46.6 68.2 86.6
Other income 16.2 20.8 21.4 13.2
2006
TANF, SSI and SNAP 58.2 31.4 10.4 0.2
Earnings 27.7 48.3 68.6 86.5
Other income 14.1 20.3 21.0 13.3
2009
TANF, SSI and SNAP 62.0 35.8 13.6 0.2
Earnings 25.2 44.2 62.8 85.8
Other income 12.8 20.0 23.6 14.0

Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of SNAP benefits. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest and dividends. Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1996-2010, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


18 For a discussion on defining welfare dependence, please see “Measuring Welfare Dependence” in Chapter I.

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