Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008. INDICATOR 2. Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

12/20/2008

Figure IND 2.
Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program: 2005

Figure IND 2

Note:  Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source:  Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2006, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

 

  • Figure IND 2 shows the percentage of recipients in families with labor force participants by program.1  In 2005, SSI recipients were more likely to live in families with no labor force participants (61.1 percent) than were TANF recipients (47.7 percent) or food stamp recipients (44.6 percent).
  • Table IND 2a shows the percentage of recipients in families with labor force participants by program and demographic characteristics.
  • Among TANF recipients, Hispanics of any race were more likely to live in families with at least one full-time worker (34.3 percent) than were Non-Hispanic Whites (25.9 percent) or Non-Hispanic Blacks (22.5 percent).
  • Among TANF recipients, 49.2 percent of persons in married-couple families lived with at least one full-time worker compared to 19.6 percent of persons in female-headed families, and 28.3 percent of persons in male- headed families.
  • Table IND 2b shows the percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients living in families with labor force participants by year.  The percentage of recipients living in families with full-time workers increased from 18.8 percent in 1993 to 35.3 percent in 2001 and then declined to 26.9 percent in 2005.

Table IND 2a.
Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program and Selected Characteristics: 2005

    No One in LF At Least One in LF,
No One FT
At Least One
FT Worker
Note:  Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work.  This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month. Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source:  Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2006, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

TANF All Persons 47.7 25.4 26.9
  Non-Hispanic White 47.3 26.8 25.9
  Non-Hispanic Black 50.7 26.8 22.5
  Hispanic 43.9 21.8 34.3
  Children ages 0-5 48.1 23.6 28.4
  Children ages 6-10 49.2 25.8 25.0
  Children ages 11-15 49.2 22.4 28.4
  Women ages 16-64 49.4 27.0 23.6
  Men ages 16-64 35.8 31.4 32.9
  Adults ages 65 and over 51.4 7.6 40.9
  Persons in married-couple families 25.0 25.8 49.2
  Persons in female-headed families 55.8 24.6 19.6
  Persons in male-headed families 39.9 31.8 28.3
  Unrelated persons NA NA NA
FOOD STAMPS All Persons 44.6 22.4 32.9
  Non-Hispanic White 47.0 23.0 30.0
  Non-Hispanic Black 45.2 24.9 30.0
  Hispanic 39.0 17.7 43.3
  Children ages 0-5 34.5 22.8 42.8
  Children ages 6-10 36.3 24.6 39.1
  Children ages 11-15 38.4 22.2 39.4
  Women ages 16-64 47.6 23.9 28.5
  Men ages 16-64 44.4 24.0 31.6
  Adults ages 65 and over 84.8 6.6 8.6
  Persons in married-couple families 28.5 20.0 51.5
  Persons in female-headed families 44.8 25.2 30.0
  Persons in male-headed families 35.7 27.1 37.2
  Unrelated persons 79.4 15.2 5.4
SSI All Persons 61.1 10.2 28.7
  Non-Hispanic White 65.0 9.5 25.4
  Non-Hispanic Black 62.8 12.4 24.7
  Hispanic 54.4 8.7 36.9
  Children ages 0-5 39.8 13.9 46.3
  Children ages 6-10 42.8 12.1 45.1
  Children ages 11-15 42.8 19.0 38.3
  Women ages 16-64 67.8 10.2 21.9
  Men ages 16-64 58.5 11.4 30.1
  Adults ages 65 and over 65.9 6.6 27.6
  Persons in married-couple families 36.4 11.5 52.1
  Persons in female-headed families 53.7 14.4 31.9
  Persons in male-headed families 44.8 14.0 41.2
  Unrelated persons 95.2 4.0 0.9

Table IND 2b.
Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: 1993-2005

  No One in LF At Least One in LF,
No One FT
At Least One
FT Worker
Note:  Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work.  This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source:  Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1994 - 2006, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

1993 57.0 24.2 18.8
1994 54.8 24.8 20.4
1995 50.6 24.3 25.1
1996 50.1 25.6 24.3
1997 47.6 28.0 24.4
1998 44.3 25.8 29.9
1999 40.8 24.1 35.1
2000 41.2 24.1 34.7
2001 38.7 26.0 35.3
2002 39.8 25.8 34.3
2003 47.4 24.1 28.5
2004 48.0 23.8 28.1
2005 47.7 25.4 26.9

1 Note that lower family employment rates are reported in TANF administrative data, which are limited to the employment of family members in the TANF assistance unit and employment reported to welfare agencies (see Table TANF 7 in Appendix A).

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