Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008. Food Stamp Program Data

12/20/2008

The following six tables and accompanying figure provide information about the Food Stamp Program:

  • Tables FSP 1 and FSP 2 and Figure FSP 1 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the Food Stamp Program as discussed below;
  • Table FSP 3 presents some demographic characteristics of the food stamp caseload; and
  • Tables FSP 4 through FSP 6 present some state-by-state trend data on the FSP through fiscal year 2006.

Food Stamp Caseload Trends (Table FSP 1).  Average monthly food stamp participation was 26.7 million persons in fiscal year 2006, excluding the participants in Puerto Rico’s block grant.  This represents a significant increase over the fiscal year 2000 record-low average of 17.2 million participants.  It is, however, still below the peak of 27.5 million recipients in fiscal year 1994.  See also Table IND 3b and Table IND 4b in Chapter II for further data trends in food stamp caseload, specifically, food stamp recipiency and participation rates.  

Considerable research has demonstrated that the Food Stamp Program is responsive to economic changes, with participation increasing in times of economic downturns and decreasing in times of economic growth (see Figure FSP 1).  Economic conditions alone did not explain the caseload growth in the late 1980s and early 1990s, however.  Studies suggest that a variety of factors contributed to this caseload growth, including a weak economy and higher rates of unemployment, expansions in Medicaid eligibility, the legalization of 3 million undocumented immigrants, and longer participation spells (McConnell, 1991; Gleason, 1998).

The decline in participation from 1994 to 2000 was caused by several factors, according to studies of this period.  Part of the decline is associated with the strong economy in the second half of the 1990s.  However, participation fell more sharply than expected during this period of sustained economic growth.  Some of the decline reflected restrictions on the eligibility of noncitizens and time limits for unemployed nondisabled childless adults.  Participation fell most rapidly among the following three groups: noncitizens and their US-born children, unemployed nondisabled childless adults, and persons receiving cash welfare benefits.  As people left the welfare rolls, many also stopped participating in food stamps, even while remaining eligible (Genser, 1999; Wilde et al., 2000; Gleason et al., 2001; Kornfeld, 2002).

The increase in FSP participation from 2000 to 2005 occurred during a period when unemployment increased from four percent to five percent, eligibility was restored to many legal immigrants, states took advantage of opportunities to expand categorical eligibility to those receiving noncash TANF benefits and services and to liberalize the treatment of vehicles, and the Food and Nutrition Service was encouraging states to conduct outreach efforts and simplify the program.  In addition, the proportion of eligible households participating in the Food Stamp Program, increased from 50 percent in 2000 to 59 percent in 2005.  Between 2000 and 2005, food stamp participation increased by 3.6 million households (see Table IND 4b).  Part of this increase was associated with an increase in the number of eligible households and part was associated with an increased participation rate among those households that were eligible.  

Food Stamp Expenditures.  Total program costs, shown in Table FSP 2, were higher in 2005 and 2006 than in 2004, reflecting the increase in participation during that period as well as an increase in average benefits.  Total federal program costs were $32.8 billion in 2006, $32.2 billion in 2005, and $29.0 billion in 2004 (after adjusting for inflation).  Average monthly benefits per person, also shown in Table FSP 2, were $94.30 per person in 2006, $96.00 in 2005 and $92.10 in 2004 (after adjusting for inflation).  The personal monthly benefit decreased 1.8 percent between 2005 and 2006.

Food Stamp Household Characteristics.  As shown in Table FSP 3, the proportion of food stamp households with earnings has increased, from about 20 percent for most of the 1980s and early 1990s, to 30 percent in 2006.  At the same time, the proportion of households with income from AFDC/TANF has declined, from 42 percent in 1990 to 13 percent in 2006, following the dramatic decline in AFDC/TANF caseloads.  Over half of all food stamp households have children, although the proportion has declined from over 60 percent in most of the 1980s and early 1990s to 52 percent in 2006.  The majority (87 percent in 2006) of households have incomes below the federal poverty guidelines.

 


Figure FSP 1.
Persons Receiving Food Stamps: 1962–2006
(In millions)

Figure FSP 1

Note: Shaded areas are periods of recession as determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, data published online at http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/fssummar.htm and unpublished data from the Food Stamps National Data Bank.


Table FSP 1.
Trends in Food Stamp Caseloads:  Selected Years 1962–2006

Fiscal
Year
Food Stamp Participants Participants as a Percent of: Child Participants as a Percent of:
Including
Territories 1
(thousands)
Excluding
Territories (thousands)
Children
Excld. Terr.
(thousands)
Total
Population 2
All Poor
Persons 2
Total Child
Population 2
Children in
Poverty 2
1 Total participants includes all participating states, the District of Columbia, and the territories (including Puerto Rico from 1975 to 1982–a separate Nutrition Assistance Grant for Puerto Rico was begun in July 1982).  From 1962 to 1983 the number of participants includes the Family Food Assistance Program (FFAP) that was largely replaced by the FSP in 1975.  The FFAP participants (as of December) for the seven years shown during the period from 1962 to 1974 were respectively: 6,411;  4,742;  3,977;  3,642;  3,002;  2,441;  and 1,406 (all in thousands).  From 1975 to 1983 the number of FFAP participants averaged only 88 thousand.
2 Includes all participating states and the District of Columbia only–the territories are excluded from both numerator and denominator.  Population numbers used as denominators are the resident population.
3 The pre-transfer poverty population used as denominator is the number of all persons in families or living alone whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the relevant poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.
4 The first fiscal year in which food stamps were available nationwide.
5 The fiscal year in which the food stamp purchase requirement was eliminated, on a phased-in basis.
Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture, data published online at http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/fssummar.htm and unpublished data from the Food Stamps National Data Bank, the House Ways and Means Committee, 1996 Green Book, and U.S. Census Bureau, “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2006,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-233.
1962 6,554 6,554 NA 3.5 17.0 NA NA
1965 5,167 5,167 NA 2.7 15.6 NA NA
1970 8,317 8,317 NA 4.1 32.7 NA NA
1971 13,010 13,010 NA 6.3 50.9 NA NA
1972 14,111 14,111 NA 6.7 57.7 NA NA
1973 14,607 14,607 NA 6.9 63.6 NA NA
1974 14,288 14,288 NA 6.7 61.1 NA NA
1975 4 17,152 16,320 NA 7.6 63.1 NA NA
1976 18,628 17,033 9,126 7.8 68.2 13.8 88.8
1977 17,161 15,604 NA 7.1 63.1 NA NA
1978 16,077 14,405 NA 6.5 58.8 NA NA
1979 5 17,758 15,942 NA 7.1 61.1 NA NA
1980 21,173 19,253 9,876 8.5 65.8 15.5 85.6
1981 22,518 20,655 9,803 9.0 64.6 15.5 78.4
1982 21,808 20,392 9,591 8.8 59.3 15.3 70.3
1983 21,727 20,095 10,910 8.6 61.4 17.4 78.4
1984 20,854 20,796 10,492 8.8 61.7 16.8 78.2
1985 19,899 19,847 9,906 8.3 60.0 15.7 75.3
1986 19,429 19,381 9,844 8.1 59.9 15.7 76.5
1987 19,113 19,072 9,771 7.9 59.2 15.5 76.1
1988 18,645 18,613 9,351 7.6 58.6 14.8 75.1
1989 18,806 18,778 9,429 7.6 59.6 14.9 74.9
1990 20,049 20,020 10,127 8.0 59.6 15.8 75.4
1991 22,625 22,599 11,952 8.9 63.3 18.3 83.3
1992 25,406 25,370 13,349 9.9 66.7 20.1 87.3
1993 26,982 26,952 14,196 10.4 68.6 21.0 90.3
1994 27,468 27,433 14,391 10.4 72.1 21.0 94.1
1995 26,619 26,579 13,860 10.0 73.0 20.0 94.5
1996 25,543 25,495 13,189 9.5 69.8 18.8 91.2
1997 22,858 22,820 11,847 8.4 64.1 16.7 83.9
1998 19,791 19,748 10,524 7.2 57.3 14.7 78.1
1999 18,183 18,146 9,332 6.5 55.3 13.0 76.0
2000 17,194 17,156 8,743 6.1 54.3 12.1 75.5
2001 17,318 17,282 8,819 6.1 52.5 12.1 75.2
2002 19,096 19,059 9,688 6.6 55.1 13.3 79.8
2003 21,259 21,222 10,605 7.3 59.2 14.5 82.4
2004 23,858 23,819 11,771 8.1 64.3 16.1 90.3
2005 25,718 25,677 12,405 8.7 69.5 16.9 96.2
2006 26,672 26,631 12,579 8.9 73.0 17.1 98.1

Table FSP 2.
Trends in Food Stamp Expenditures: Selected Years 1975–2006

Fiscal
Year
Total Federal Cost
 (Benefits + Administration)
Benefits
(Federal)
(millions)
Administration1 Total Program Cost
(millions)
Average Monthly Benefit per Person
Current Dollars
(millions)
2006 Dollars2
(millions)
Federal
(millions)
State & Local
(millions)
Current Dollars 2006 Dollars2
Note: Total federal cost and the cost of benefits does include food stamps in Puerto Rico from 1975 to 1982 but does not include the funding for the Puerto Rico nutrition assistance grant from the last quarter of FY 1982 (when it replaced Puerto Rico’s food stamp program) to the present. (Puerto Rico’s nutrition assistance grant was $778 million in 1983 and rose to over $1.4 billion in 2004.)
1 Amounts include the federal share of state administrative and Employment and Training costs and certain direct federal administrative costs.  They do not generally include approximately $60 million in food stamp-related federal administrative costs budgeted under a separate appropriation account (although estimates prior to 1989 do include estimates of food stamp related federal administrative expenses paid out of other Agriculture Department accounts).  State and local costs are estimated based on the known federal shares and represent an estimate of all administrative expenses of participating states.
2 Constant dollar adjustments to 2006 level were made using a CPI-U-RS fiscal year average price index.
3 The fiscal year in which the food stamp purchase requirement was eliminated, on a phased-in basis.
4 Beginning 1984 USDA took over from DHHS the administrative cost of certifying public assistance households for food stamps.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service unpublished data (available at online at http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/fssummar.htm); and the House Ways and Means Committee, 2004 Green Book (available online at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/wmprints/green/2004.html).
1975 $4,619 $16,263 $4,386 $233 $175 $4,794 $21.30 $75.00
1976 5,686 18,740 5,327 359 270 5,955 23.90 78.80
1977 5,461 16,755 5,067 394 295 5,756 24.80 76.10
1978 5,520 15,888 5,139 381 285 5,805 26.60 76.60
19793 6,940 18,336 6,480 460 388 7,328 30.50 80.60
1980 9,206 21,890 8,721 486 375 9,581 34.50 82.00
1981 11,225 24,262 10,630 595 504 11,729 39.50 85.40
1982 10,837 21,911 10,208 628 557 11,394 39.20 78.00
1983 11,847 22,901 11,152 695 612 12,459 43.00 83.10
19844 11,579 21,494 10,696 8835 805 12,384 42.70 79.30
1985 11,703 20,972 10,744 960 871 12,574 45.00 80.60
1986 11,638 20,384 10,605 1,033 935 12,573 45.50 79.70
1987 11,604 19,795 10,500 1,104 996 12,600 45.80 78.10
1988 12,317 20,260 11,149 1,168 1,080 13,397 49.80 81.90
1989 12,902 20,358 11,670 1,232 1,101 14,033 51.70 81.90
1990 15,447 23,313 14,143 1,305 1,174 16,664 58.80 88.60
1991 18,774 27,073 17,316 1,432 1,247 20,018 63.80 92.10
1992 22,462 31,662 20,906 1,557 1,375 23,837 68.60 96.70
1993 23,653 32,516 22,006 1,647 1,572 25,225 68.00 93.50
1994 24,494 32,964 22,749 1,745 1,643 26,136 69.00 92.90
1995 24,620 32,365 22,764 1,856 1,748 26,368 71.30 93.70
1996 24,331 31,206 22,440 1,891 1,842 26,173 73.20 93.90
1997 21,508 26,916 19,549 1,959 1,904 23,389 71.30 89.20
1998 18,988 23,415 16,891 2.098 1,988 20,876 71.10 87.70
1999 17,820 21,587 15,769 2,052 1,874 19,584 72.30 87.60
2000 17,054 20,032 14,983 2,071 2,086 19,140 72.60 85.30
2001 17,790 20,250 15,547 2,242 2,233 20,023 74.80 85.10
2002 20,637 23,143 18,256 2,381 2,397 23,034 79.70 89.40
2003 23,816 26,092 21,404 2,412 2,430 26,246 83.90 91.90
2004 27,098 29,018 24,619 2,479 2,500 29,598 86.00 92.10
2005 31,076 32,225 28,568 2,509 2,556 33,633 92.60 96.00
2006 32,761 32,761 30,187 2,574 2,869 35,626 94.30 94.30

Table FSP 3.
Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Selected Years 1980–2006

  Year 1
1980 1984 1988 1990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2003 2006
1 Data were gathered in August in the years 1980-84 and during the summer in the years from 1986 to 1994.  Reports from 1995 to the present are based on fiscal year averages.
2 Public assistance income includes: AFDC/TANF, SSI, and general assistance.
3 Elderly members and heads of household include those of age 60 or older.
§§ The total percentage of households with public assistance income is approximately equal to the sum of those with AFDC/TANF and SSI income with some small percentage of households receiving both due to having individual members eligible for different forms of assistance (in 1996 just under 6 percent of households received assistance from multiple sources).
* Less than 0.5 percent.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 2006, Report No. FSP-07-CHAR (available online at http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/FSP/participation.htm) and earlier reports.
With Gross Monthly Income: (In Percent)
   Below the Federal Poverty Levels 87 93 92 92 90 91 90 89 88 87
   Between the Poverty Levels & 130 percent of the Poverty Levels 10 6 8 8 9 8 9 10 11 11
   Above 130 Percent of Poverty 2 1 * * 1 1 1 1 2 2
With Earnings 19 19 20 19 21 23 26 27 28 30
With Public Assistance Income 2 §§ §§ §§ §§ §§ 61 59 56 47 41
   With AFDC/TANF Income NA 42 42 42 38 37 31 26 17 13
   With SSI Income 18 18 20 19 23 24 28 32 28 27
With Children 60 61 61 61 61 60 58 54 55 52
   And Female Heads of Household NA 47 50 51 51 50 47 44 44 43
      With No Spouse Present NA NA 39 37 43 43 41 38 37 36
With Elderly Members 3 23 22 19 18 16 16 18 21 18 18
Average Household Size 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3

Table FSP 4.
Value of Food Stamps Issued by State: Selected Fiscal Years 1975–2006

[In millions]

    Percent Change
1975 1980 1985 1990 1996 2000 2003 2006 1996-00 2000-06
United States $4,386 $8,721 $10,744 $14,186 $22,441 $14,983 $21,404 $30,187 -33 101
Note: The totals for 1975 and 1980 include amounts for Puerto Rico of $366 and $828 million respectively.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service (2000 to 2006 data published online at http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/fsfybft.htm) and unpublished data from the Food Stamp National Data Bank.
Alabama $103 $246 $318 $328 $440 $344 $466 $594 -22 73
Alaska 6 27 25 25 54 46 66 86 -15 88
Arizona 41 97 121 239 372 240 498 626 -35 161
Arkansas 78 122 126 155 224 206 304 414 -8 101
California 361 530 639 968 2,555 1,639 1,806 2,377 -36 45
Colorado 44 71 94 156 210 127 203 321 -40 154
Connecticut 36 59 62 72 175 138 165 239 -21 73
Delaware 6 21 22 25 47 31 48 70 -34 125
Dist. of Columbia 31 41 40 43 95 77 90 104 -19 36
Florida 207 421 368 609 1,296 771 988 1,684 -40 118
Georgia 129 264 290 382 703 489 782 1,098 -30 125
Guam 2 15 18 15 27 36 53 55 34 52
Hawaii 23 60 93 81 196 166 156 148 -15 -11
Idaho 11 29 36 40 61 46 77 100 -25 117
Illinois 238 394 713 835 1,034 777 1,053 1,503 -25 93
Indiana 58 154 242 226 330 268 484 648 -19 142
Iowa 28 54 107 109 141 100 149 244 -29 144
Kansas 12 38 64 96 135 83 140 188 -39 128
Kentucky 135 211 332 334 413 337 486 645 -18 92
Louisiana 148 243 365 549 597 448 685 1,032 -25 130
Maine 31 60 62 63 113 81 124 169 -28 108
Maryland 76 140 171 203 362 199 257 336 -45 69
Massachusetts 75 171 173 207 295 182 254 422 -38 132
Michigan 124 263 541 663 773 457 783 1,239 -41 171
Minnesota 40 62 105 165 221 165 227 282 -26 71
Mississippi 110 199 264 352 376 226 335 507 -40 124
Missouri 82 142 212 312 480 358 568 740 -25 107
Montana 11 18 31 41 58 51 69 90 -12 76
Nebraska 11 25 44 59 78 61 89 124 -21 104
Nevada 10 15 22 41 91 57 113 124 -38 120
New Hampshire 11 22 15 20 42 28 40 58 -32 106
New Jersey 125 226 260 289 508 304 339 456 -40 50
New Mexico 48 81 88 117 199 140 184 253 -30 82
New York 209 726 938 1,086 2,054 1,361 1,677 2,240 -34 65
North Carolina 122 234 237 282 547 403 645 921 -26 128
North Dakota 5 9 16 25 32 25 37 46 -22 83
Ohio 253 382 697 861 934 520 879 1,266 -44 143
Oklahoma 38 73 134 186 308 208 362 467 -32 124
Oregon 56 80 142 168 259 198 381 463 -24 134
Pennsylvania 175 373 547 661 981 656 785 1,182 -33 80
Rhode Island 18 31 35 42 78 59 69 81 -24 37
South Carolina 121 181 194 240 299 249 443 589 -17 136
South Dakota 8 18 26 35 41 37 51 66 -10 80
Tennessee 115 282 280 372 542 415 722 976 -23 135
Texas 314 514 701 1,429 2,140 1,215 1,881 2,939 -43 142
Utah 12 22 40 71 87 68 102 140 -21 106
Vermont 9 18 20 22 43 32 38 50 -26 57
Virgin Islands 6 19 23 18 42 21 18 21 -50 -2
Virginia 63 158 189 247 450 263 366 526 -42 100
Washington 70 90 140 229 426 241 394 595 -43 146
West Virginia 56 87 159 192 252 185 216 266 -26 44
Wisconsin 29 68 148 180 198 129 233 347 -35 169
Wyoming 3 6 15 21 28 19 24 26 -34 42

Table FSP 5.
Average Number of Food Stamp Recipients by State: Selected Fiscal Years

[In thousands]

    Percent Change
1975 1980 1985 1990 1996 2000 2003 2006 1996-00 2000-06
United States 17,192 21,082 19,899 20,049 25,543 17,194 21,259 26,672 -33 55
Note: The totals for 1975 and 1980 include recipients in Puerto Rico of 810 thousand and 1.86 million respectively.
Source:  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service (2000 to 2006 data published online at http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/fsfypart.htm) and unpublished data from the National Data Bank.
Alabama 365 583 588 454 509 396 472 547 -22 38
Alaska 15 29 22 25 46 38 51 57 -19 52
Arizona 143 196 206 317 427 259 466 541 -39 109
Arkansas 267 301 253 235 274 247 310 385 -10 56
California 1,455 1,493 1,615 1,937 3,143 1,830 1,709 2,000 -42 9
Colorado 150 163 170 221 244 156 208 251 -36 61
Connecticut 155 170 145 133 223 165 181 210 -26 27
Delaware 26 52 40 33 58 32 46 66 -44 104
Dist. of Columbia 122 103 72 62 93 81 82 89 -13 10
Florida 647 912 630 781 1,371 882 1,041 1,418 -36 61
Georgia 498 627 567 536 793 559 750 947 -29 69
Guam 6 22 20 12 18 22 24 28 26 25
Hawaii 75 102 99 77 130 118 100 88 -9 -25
Idaho 39 61 59 59 80 58 82 91 -27 57
Illinois 926 903 1,110 1,013 1,105 817 954 1,225 -26 50
Indiana 392 353 406 311 390 300 470 575 -23 91
Iowa 115 141 203 170 177 123 154 226 -30 83
Kansas 58 90 119 142 172 117 161 183 -32 57
Kentucky 472 468 560 458 486 403 503 589 -17 46
Louisiana 510 569 644 727 670 500 655 830 -25 66
Maine 126 139 114 94 131 102 133 160 -22 58
Maryland 261 324 287 255 375 219 252 305 -41 39
Massachusetts 365 453 337 347 374 232 292 432 -38 86
Michigan 619 813 985 917 935 603 838 1,134 -36 88
Minnesota 167 171 228 263 295 196 235 264 -33 35
Mississippi 376 496 495 499 457 276 356 448 -40 62
Missouri 300 335 362 431 554 423 592 796 -24 88
Montana 38 43 58 57 71 59 71 82 -16 37
Nebraska 49 66 94 95 102 82 99 120 -19 45
Nevada 32 32 32 50 97 61 111 118 -37 94
New Hampshire 44 50 28 31 53 36 45 56 -31 55
New Jersey 490 605 464 382 540 345 339 406 -36 18
New Mexico 157 185 157 157 235 169 195 245 -28 44
New York 1,291 1,759 1,834 1,548 2,099 1,439 1,436 1,786 -31 24
North Carolina 466 582 474 419 631 488 649 854 -23 75
North Dakota 19 25 33 39 40 32 40 43 -20 34
Ohio 854 865 1,133 1,089 1,045 610 855 1,064 -42 74
Oklahoma 171 209 263 267 354 253 380 436 -28 72
Oregon 201 197 228 216 288 234 398 434 -19 85
Pennsylvania 848 980 1,032 952 1,124 777 823 1,092 -31 41
Rhode Island 86 87 69 64 91 74 74 73 -18 -1
South Carolina 410 426 373 299 358 295 451 534 -18 81
South Dakota 33 43 48 50 49 43 51 58 -12 36
Tennessee 397 624 518 527 638 496 728 870 -22 75
Texas 1,133 1,167 1,263 1,880 2,372 1,333 1,872 2,623 -44 97
Utah 46 54 75 99 110 82 106 132 -26 61
Vermont 44 46 44 38 56 41 41 47 -28 16
Virgin Islands 16 34 32 18 31 16 13 13 -49 -15
Virginia 257 384 360 346 538 336 393 507 -37 51
Washington 253 248 281 340 478 295 404 536 -38 82
West Virginia 242 209 278 262 300 227 247 268 -24 18
Wisconsin 148 215 363 286 283 193 297 368 -32 91
Wyoming 10 14 27 28 33 22 25 24 -32 8

Table FSP 6.
Food Stamp Recipiency Rates by State: Selected Fiscal Years

[In percent]

    Percent Change
1975 1980 1985 1990 1996 2000 2003 2006 1996-00 2000-06
United States 7.6 8.5 8.3 8.0 9.5 6.1 7.3 8.9 -36 47
Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of food stamp recipients in each state during the particular fiscal year expressed as a percent of the total resident population as of July 1 of that year.  The numerator is from Table FSP 5.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service (2000 to 2006 data published online at http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/fsfypart.htm and unpublished data from the National Data Bank; U.S. Census Bureau (population by state available online at http://www.census.gov).
Alabama 9.9 14.9 14.8 11.2 11.8 8.9 10.5 11.9 -24 34
Alaska 4.0 7.1 4.1 4.5 7.6 6.0 7.8 8.4 -21 41
Arizona 6.3 7.1 6.5 8.6 9.3 5.0 8.4 8.8 -46 75
Arkansas 12.4 13.1 10.9 10.0 10.6 9.2 11.4 13.7 -14 49
California 6.8 6.3 6.1 6.5 9.8 5.4 4.8 5.5 -45 2
Colorado 5.8 5.6 5.3 6.7 6.2 3.6 4.6 5.3 -42 46
Connecticut 5.0 5.5 4.5 4.0 6.7 4.8 5.2 6.0 -28 24
Delaware 4.5 8.7 6.5 5.0 7.8 4.1 5.6 7.7 -48 88
Dist. of Columbia 17.2 16.1 11.4 10.3 16.2 14.1 14.2 15.2 -13 8
Florida 7.6 9.3 5.5 6.0 9.2 5.5 6.1 7.9 -40 43
Georgia 9.8 11.4 9.5 8.2 10.6 6.8 8.6 10.1 -36 49
Hawaii 8.4 10.6 9.5 6.9 10.8 9.7 8.1 6.9 -10 -29
Idaho 4.6 6.4 5.9 5.8 6.6 4.5 6.0 6.2 -33 39
Illinois 8.2 7.9 9.7 8.8 9.1 6.6 7.6 9.6 -28 46
Indiana 7.3 6.4 7.4 5.6 6.6 4.9 7.6 9.1 -25 85
Iowa 4.0 4.8 7.2 6.1 6.2 4.2 5.2 7.6 -32 80
Kansas 2.5 3.8 4.9 5.7 6.6 4.3 5.9 6.6 -34 54
Kentucky 13.6 12.8 15.2 12.4 12.4 10.0 12.2 14.0 -20 41
Louisiana 13.1 13.5 14.6 17.2 15.2 11.2 14.6 19.6 -27 75
Maine 11.8 12.3 9.8 7.6 10.5 8.0 10.2 12.2 -24 53
Maryland 6.3 7.7 6.5 5.3 7.3 4.1 4.6 5.5 -44 32
Massachusetts 6.3 7.9 5.7 5.8 6.0 3.6 4.5 6.7 -40 84
Michigan 6.8 8.8 10.8 9.8 9.6 6.1 8.3 11.2 -37 85
Minnesota 4.2 4.2 5.5 6.0 6.3 4.0 4.6 5.1 -36 29
Mississippi 15.7 19.6 19.1 19.4 16.6 9.7 12.4 15.4 -42 59
Missouri 6.2 6.8 7.2 8.4 10.2 7.6 10.4 13.6 -26 81
Montana 5.1 5.5 7.1 7.1 8.0 6.6 7.8 8.6 -18 31
Nebraska 3.2 4.2 5.9 6.0 6.1 4.8 5.7 6.8 -21 41
Nevada 5.2 4.0 3.4 4.1 5.8 3.0 5.0 4.7 -48 57
New Hampshire 5.3 5.4 2.8 2.7 4.5 2.9 3.5 4.3 -35 47
New Jersey 6.7 8.2 6.1 4.9 6.6 4.1 3.9 4.7 -38 15
New Mexico 13.5 14.1 10.9 10.3 13.4 9.3 10.4 12.6 -31 35
New York 7.2 10.0 10.3 8.6 11.3 7.6 7.5 9.3 -33 22
North Carolina 8.4 9.9 7.6 6.3 8.4 6.0 7.7 9.6 -28 59
North Dakota 2.9 3.9 4.9 6.1 6.1 5.0 6.3 6.7 -19 35
Ohio 7.9 8.0 10.6 10.0 9.3 5.4 7.5 9.3 -42 73
Oklahoma 6.2 6.9 8.0 8.5 10.6 7.3 10.9 12.2 -31 66
Oregon 8.6 7.5 8.5 7.6 8.9 6.8 11.2 11.8 -23 72
Pennsylvania 7.1 8.3 8.8 8.0 9.2 6.3 6.7 8.8 -31 39
Rhode Island 9.2 9.1 7.2 6.4 8.9 7.1 6.9 6.9 -21 -2
South Carolina 14.1 13.6 11.3 8.5 9.4 7.3 10.9 12.3 -22 68
South Dakota 4.8 6.2 6.9 7.2 6.6 5.7 6.7 7.4 -14 31
Tennessee 9.3 13.6 11.0 10.8 11.8 8.7 12.4 14.3 -26 65
Texas 9.0 8.1 7.8 11.0 12.3 6.4 8.5 11.2 -48 76
Utah 3.7 3.7 4.6 5.7 5.3 3.7 4.5 5.1 -31 40
Vermont 9.1 8.9 8.2 6.8 9.5 6.7 6.7 7.6 -30 14
Virginia 5.1 7.2 6.3 5.6 8.0 4.7 5.3 6.6 -41 40
Washington 7.0 6.0 6.4 6.9 8.6 5.0 6.6 8.4 -42 68
West Virginia 13.1 10.7 14.6 14.6 16.4 12.6 13.7 14.8 -24 18
Wisconsin 3.2 4.6 7.6 5.8 5.4 3.6 5.4 6.6 -34 84
Wyoming 2.7 3.0 5.4 6.2 6.8 4.5 5.1 4.7 -33 4

 

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