Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008. AFDC/TANF Program Data

12/20/2008

The following tables and figures present data on caseloads, expenditures, and recipient characteristics of the AFDC and TANF programs.  Trends in national caseloads and expenditures are shown in Figures TANF 1 and TANF 2, and the first set of tables (Tables TANF 1 through 6).  These are followed by information on characteristics of AFDC/TANF families (Table TANF 7)5 and a series of tables presenting state-by-state data on trends in the AFDC/TANF program (Tables TANF 8 through 15).  These data complement the data on trends in AFDC/TANF recipiency and participation rates shown in Tables IND 3a and IND 4a in Chapter II.

AFDC/TANF Caseload Trends (Tables TANF 1 through TANF 3 and Figure TANF 1).  Welfare caseloads have stabilized over the past few years after declining dramatically during the 1990s.  In FY 2006, the average monthly number of TANF recipients was 4.7 million persons, down 7 percent from FY 2005.  Moreover, this was 62 percent lower than the average monthly AFDC caseload in FY 1996 and the smallest number of people on welfare since 1967. From the peak of 14.2 million in FY 1994, the number of AFDC/TANF recipients dropped by 67 percent to 4.7 million in FY 2007.6 Over four-fifths of the reduction in the caseload since FY 1994 has occurred following the passage of PRWORA in FY 1996.  These are the largest welfare caseload declines in the history of U.S. welfare programs.

Several studies have attempted to explain the unprecedented decline in caseloads and, specifically, to disentangle the effects of PRWORA and welfare reform from the simultaneous growth in the U.S. economy.  Separating these effects is difficult, however, because PRWORA was enacted at a time when the economy was expanding dramatically, offering a uniquely conducive environment within which to move many recipients off the welfare rolls and into the labor market.  Other policy changes, most notably expansions in the Earned Income Tax Credit, add further complexity.

In general, studies have found that both economic conditions and welfare reform policies have played important roles in the recent caseload decline.  A review of a dozen studies concluded that roughly 15 to 30 percent of the caseload decline prior to 1996 was attributed by most studies to welfare policies under waivers to the AFDC rules with approximately 30 to 45 percent of the decline explained by economic conditions (Schoeni and Blank, 2000).  A study by the Council of Economic Advisers (1999) of the post-PRWORA period finds that just over one-third of the caseload decline can be explained by welfare reform policy, while 8 to 10 percent is due to the economy.  A more recent study estimates that over half the decline in caseloads after enactment of PRWORA was attributable to welfare reform (O’Neill and Hill, 2001).

AFDC/TANF Expenditures (Tables TANF 4 through TANF 6 and Figure TANF 2). Tables TANF 4 and 5 show trends in expenditures on AFDC and TANF.  Table TANF 4 tracks both programs, breaking out the costs of benefits and administrative expenses.  It also shows the division between federal and state spending.  Table TANF 5 shows the variety of activities funded under the TANF program.

Figure TANF 2 and Table TANF 6 show that inflation has had a significant effect in eroding the value of the average monthly AFDC/TANF benefit.  In real dollars, by 2006 the average monthly benefit per recipient had declined to 65 percent of what it was at its peak in the late 1970s.

AFDC/TANF Recipient Characteristics (Table TANF 7). With the dramatic declines in the welfare rolls since the implementation of TANF, there has been a great deal of speculation regarding how the composition of the caseload has changed.  Two striking trends are the increases in the proportion of families with no adult in the assistance unit and in employment among adult recipients.

One of the most dramatic trends is the increase in the proportion of adult recipients who are working. In FY 2006, 22 percent of TANF adult recipients were employed, down from 26 percent in 2000, but up from 11 percent in FY 1996 and 7 percent in FY 1992, as shown in Table TANF 7.  Adding in those in work experience and community service positions, the percentage working was 30 percent in FY 20067 (data not shown).  Similar trends are shown in data on income from earnings. These trends likely reflect the effects of expanded earnings disregards, welfare-to-work programs, and the economy.  One can also see a relationship between employment of welfare recipients and broader trends in labor force participation. (For example, see Table WORK 8 in Chapter III for trends in employment rates for women with children under age 18.)

Another dramatic change in the caseload is the increasing fraction of cases without an adult recipient. Such cases occur when the adults are ineligible (because they are a caretaker relative, SSI parent, immigrant parent, or sanctioned parent).  Families with no adults in the assistance unit have climbed from 15 percent of the caseload in FY 1992 to 47 percent in FY 2006.8 This dramatic growth has been due to an increase in the number of cases without recipient adults during the early 1990s, followed by a decline in the number of cases that included adults in the assistance unit.  The number of cases without an adult in the assistance unit has fallen by about 127,000 since 1996 — between 1996 and 1998 they decreased by 254,000 but subsequently increased by 127,000.

In other areas, TANF administrative data show fewer changes in composition than might have been expected.  There has been widespread anecdotal evidence that the most job ready recipients — those with the fewest barriers to employment — have already exited the welfare caseload and have stopped coming onto the welfare rolls, leaving a more disadvantaged population remaining.  However, as the expectations for welfare recipients have increased, and fewer recipients are totally exempted from work requirements, others have speculated that the most disadvantaged recipients may also have been sanctioned off the rolls or terminated for failure to comply with administrative requirements.  In fact, analyses of program data have not found much evidence of an increase or decrease in readily observed barriers to employment in the current caseload.

The question of whether the caseload has become more disadvantaged cannot be answered simply through TANF administrative data provided by the states, which do not contain detailed information on such barriers to employment as lack of basic skills, alcohol and drug abuse, domestic violence, and disabilities.  A few recent studies have found very high levels of these barriers among the TANF population.  These studies also have found that the more barriers a recipient faces, the less likely she is to find a job and maintain consistent employment over a period of time.

AFDC/TANF State-by-State Trends (Tables TANF 8 through TANF 15).  There is a great deal of state-to-state variation in the trends discussed above.  For example, as shown in Table TANF 10, while every state has experienced a caseload decline since the 1990s, the percentage change between the state’s caseload peak and March 2007 ranges from 96 percent (Wyoming) to 44 percent (Nebraska).  Sixteen states have experienced caseload declines of 75 percent or more.  Table TANF 10 also shows that states reached their peak caseloads as early as May 1990 (Louisiana) and as late as June 1997 (Hawaii).

Table TANF 15 shows TANF and Separate State Program (SSP) families and recipients, by state.  Thirty-two states (including DC) had such programs.


Figure TANF 1.
AFDC/TANF Families Receiving Income Assistance

Figure TANF 1

Note: “Basic Families” are single-parent families and “UP Families” are two-parent cases receiving benefits under AFDC Unemployed Parent programs that operated in certain states before FY 1991 and in all states after October 1, 1990. The AFDC Basic and UP programs were replaced by TANF as of July 1, 1997 under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Shaded areas indicate NBER designated periods of recession from peak to trough. The decrease in number of families receiving assistance during the 1981-82 recession stems from changes in eligibility requirements and other policy changes mandated by OBRA 1981. Beginning in 2000, “Total Families” includes TANF and SSP families. Last data point plotted is March 2007.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation.


Figure TANF 2.
Average Monthly AFDC/TANF Benefit per Recipient in Constant 2006 Dollars

Figure TANF 2

Note: See Table TANF 6 for underlying data.  Comparison of trends in the average monthly AFDC/TANF benefit per recipient in constant 2006 dollars with the weighted average maximum benefit in constant 2006 dollars since 1988 indicates that the primary cause of the decline in the average monthly benefit has been the erosion of the real value of the maximum benefit due to inflation.  This is due to the fact that the current value of the maximum benefits has increased less than the cost of living in most states since the late1980s.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Quarterly Public Assistance Statistics, 1992 & 1993 and earlier years along with unpublished data.


Table TANF 1.
Trends in AFDC/TANF Caseloads: 1962-2006

Fiscal Year Average Monthly Number
(thousands)
Children as a Percent of Total Recipients Average1 Number
of Children per Family
Total
Families1
AFDC UP2
Two-Parent Families
TANF
Two-Parent Families
Total Recipients Child Recipients
Note: Beginning in 2000, all caseload numbers include SSP families.
1 Includes unemployed parent families and child-only cases.
2 The AFDC Unemployed Parent program was replaced when the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed AFDC and set up the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program beginning July 1, 1997.
3 Based on data from the AFDC reporting system that were available only for the first 9 months of the fiscal year.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance (available online at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/).
1962 924 48 NA 3,593 2,778 77.3 3.0
1964 984 60 NA 4,059 3,043 75.0 3.1
1965 1,037 69 NA 4,323 3,242 75.0 3.1
1966 1,074 62 NA 4,472 3,369 75.3 3.1
1967 1,141 58 NA 4,718 3,560 75.5 3.1
1968 1,310 67 NA 5,349 4,013 75.0 3.1
1969 1,539 66 NA 6,146 4,591 74.7 3.0
1970 1,906 78 NA 7,415 5,484 74.0 2.9
1971 2,531 143 NA 9,557 6,963 72.9 2.8
1972 2,918 134 NA 10,632 7,698 72.4 2.6
1973 3,123 120 NA 11,038 7,967 72.2 2.6
1974 3,170 93 NA 10,845 7,825 72.2 2.5
1975 3,357 100 NA 11,067 7,952 71.9 2.4
1976 3,575 135 NA 11,386 8,054 70.7 2.3
1977 3,593 149 NA 11,130 7,846 70.5 2.2
1978 3,539 128 NA 10,672 7,492 70.2 2.1
1979 3,496 114 NA 10,318 7,197 69.8 2.1
1980 3,642 141 NA 10,597 7,320 69.1 2.0
1981 3,871 209 NA 11,160 7,615 68.2 2.0
1982 3,569 232 NA 10,431 6,975 66.9 2.0
1983 3,651 272 NA 10,659 7,051 66.1 1.9
1984 3,725 287 NA 10,866 7,153 65.8 1.9
1985 3,692 261 NA 10,813 7,165 66.3 1.9
1986 3,748 254 NA 10,997 7,300 66.4 1.9
1987 3,784 236 NA 11,065 7,381 66.7 2.0
1988 3,748 210 NA 10,920 7,325 67.1 2.0
1989 3,771 193 NA 10,934 7,370 67.4 2.0
1990 3,974 204 NA 11,460 7,755 67.7 2.0
1991 4,374 268 NA 12,592 8,513 67.6 1.9
1992 4,768 322 NA 13,625 9,226 67.7 1.9
1993 4,981 359 NA 14,143 9,560 67.6 1.9
1994 5,046 363 NA 14,226 9,611 67.6 1.9
1995 4,871 335 NA 13,660 9,280 67.9 1.9
1996 4,543 301 NA 12,645 8,672 68.6 1.9
1997 2 3,937 256 NA 10,935 7,781 3 71.2 3 2.0 3
1998 3,200 NA 162 8,790 6,273 71.4 2.0
1999 2,674 NA 125 7,188 5,319 74.0 2.0
2000 2,356 NA 132 6,324 4,598 72.7 2.0
2001 2,200 NA 119 5,761 4,227 73.4 1.9
2002 2,195 NA 118 5,656 4,149 73.3 1.9
2003 2,181 NA 116 5,518 4,075 73.9 1.9
2004 2,160 NA 113 5,376 3,993 74.3 1.8
2005 2,090 NA 108 5,118 3,819 74.6 1.8
2006 1, 962 NA 98 4,746 3,561 75.0 1.8

Table TANF 2.
Number of AFDC/TANF Recipients, and Recipients as a Percentage of Various Population Groups: 1970-2006

Calendar Year 1 Total Recipients in the States & DC
(thousands)
Child Recipients in the States & DC
(thousands)
Recipients as a Percent of Total Population 2 Recipients as a Percent of Poverty Population 3 Child Recipients as a Percent of Total Child Population 2 Child Recipients as a Percent of Children in Poverty 3
1 Total recipients are calculated here as the monthly average for the calendar year in order to compare with the calendar year counts of the poverty populations used to compute the recipiency rates. From 2000 onward, total recipients includes SSP recipients as well as TANF recipients and likewise for child recipients. See Table IND 3a for fiscal year recipiency rates.
2 Population numbers used as denominators are resident population.  See Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106
3 For poverty population data see Current Population Reports, Series P60-231 (available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).
4 Estimated based on the ratio of children recipients to total recipients for January through June of 1997.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance and U.S. Census Bureau, “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2006,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-233 (available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).
1970 8,303 6,104 4.0 32.7 8.7 58.5
1971 10,043 7,303 4.8 39.3 10.5 69.2
1972 10,736 7,766 5.1 43.9 11.2 75.5
1973 10,738 7,763 5.1 46.7 11.3 80.5
1974 10,621 7,637 5.0 45.4 11.3 75.2
1975 11,131 7,928 5.2 43.0 11.8 71.4
1976 11,098 7,850 5.1 44.4 11.8 76.4
1977 10,856 7,632 4.9 43.9 11.7 74.2
1978 10,387 7,270 4.7 42.4 11.2 73.2
1979 10,140 7,057 4.5 38.9 11.0 68.0
1980 10,599 7,295 4.7 36.2 11.5 63.2
1981 10,893 7,397 4.7 34.2 11.7 59.2
1982 10,161 6,767 4.4 29.5 10.8 49.6
1983 10,569 6,967 4.5 29.9 11.1 50.1
1984 10,643 7,017 4.5 31.6 11.2 52.3
1985 10,672 7,073 4.5 32.3 11.3 54.4
1986 10,850 7,206 4.5 33.5 11.5 56.0
1987 10,841 7,240 4.5 33.6 11.5 55.9
1988 10,728 7,201 4.4 33.8 11.4 57.8
1989 10,798 7,286 4.4 34.3 11.5 57.9
1990 11,497 7,781 4.6 34.2 12.1 57.9
1991 12,728 8,601 5.0 35.6 13.2 60.0
1992 13,571 9,189 5.3 35.7 13.8 60.1
1993 14,007 9,460 5.4 35.7 14.0 60.2
1994 13,970 9,448 5.3 36.7 13.8 61.8
1995 13,242 9,013 5.0 36.4 13.0 61.5
1996 12,156 8,355 4.5 33.3 11.9 57.8
1997 10,224 7,077 4 3.7 28.7 10.0 50.1
1998 8,215 5,781 3.0 23.8 8.1 42.9
1999 6,709 4,836 2.4 20.5 6.7 39.4
2000 6,043 4,415 2.1 19.1 6.1 38.1
2001 5,631 4,140 2.0 17.1 5.7 35.3
2002 5,534 4,073 1.9 16.0 5.6 33.6
2003 5,424 4,024 1.9 15.1 5.5 31.3
2004 5,282 3,936 1.8 14.3 5.4 30.2
2005 4,975 3,727 1.7 13.5 5.1 28.9
2006 4,542 3,430 1.5 12.5 4.7 26.7

Table TANF 3.
TANF and Separate State Program (SSP) Families and Recipients: 2000-2006

[In thousands]

Fiscal Year TANF SSP Total
Note: Some states provide cash and other forms of assistance to specific categories of families (e.g., two-parent families) under Separate State Programs (SSPs) which are funded out of Maintenance of Effort (MOE) dollars rather than federal TANF funds. See Table TANF 15 for SSPs by state.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance (available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/).
Families
2000 2,265 91 2,356
2001 2,117 82 2,200
2002 2,065 129 2,195
2003 2,032 149 2,181
2004 1,987 173 2,160
2005 1,921 170 2,090
2006 1,807 155 1,962
All Recipients
2000 5,943 380 6,324
2001 5,423 338 5,761
2002 5,149 508 5,656
2003 4,967 551 5,518
2004 4,784 592 5,376
2005 4,549 569 5,118
2006 4,229 517 4,749
Child Recipients
2000 4,370 228 4,598
2001 4,025 202 4,227
2002 3,841 308 4,149
2003 3,731 344 4,075
2004 3,617 376 3,993
2005 3,459 360 3,819
2006 3,234 326 3,561

Table TANF 4.
Total AFDC/TANF Expenditures on Cash Benefits and Administration: 1970 – 2006

[In millions of dollars]

Fiscal
Year
Federal Funds
(Current Dollars)
State Funds
(Current Dollars)
Total
(Current Dollars)
Total
(Constant 2006 Dollars1)
Benefits Admin Benefits Admin Benefits Admin Benefits Admin
Note:  Benefits do not include emergency assistance payments and have not been reduced by child support collections.  Foster care payments are included from 1971 to 1980.  State funds for benefits include benefits under Separate State Programs. Beginning in fiscal year 1984, the cost of certifying AFDC households for food stamps is shown in the food stamp program’s appropriation under the U.S. Department of Agriculture.  Administrative costs include: Work Program, ADP, FAMIS, Fraud Control, Child Care administration (through 1996), SAVE and other State and local administrative expenditures.
1 Constant dollar adjustments to 2006 level were made using a CPI-U-RS fiscal year price index.
2 Includes expenditures for services.
3 Administrative expenditures only.
4 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program.  Under PRWORA, spending categories are not entirely equivalent to those under AFDC: for example administrative expenses under TANF do not include IV-A child care administration (which accounted for 4 percent of 1996 administrative expense).
Source:  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Financial Systems.
1970 $2,187 $572 2 $1,895 $309 $4,082 $881 2 19,248 4,154
1971 3,008 271 2,469 254 5,477 525 24,724 2,370
1972 3,612 240 3 2,942 241 6,554 481 3 28,571 2,097
1973 3,865 313 3,138 296 7,003 610 29,320 2,554
1974 4,071 379 3,300 362 7,371 740 28,424 2,854
1975 4,625 552 3,787 529 8,412 1,082 29,566 3,803
1976 5,258 541 4,418 527 9,676 1,069 31,835 3,517
1977 5,626 595 4,762 583 10,388 1,177 31,815 3,605
1978 5,724 631 4,898 617 10,621 1,248 30,517 3,586
1979 5,825 683 4,954 668 10,779 1,350 28,480 3,567
1980 6,448 750 5,508 729 11,956 1,479 28,428 3,517
1981 6,928 835 5,917 814 12,845 1,648 27,763 3,562
1982 6,922 878 5,934 878 12,857 1,756 25,996 3,551
1983 7,332 915 6,275 915 13,607 1,830 26,303 3,538
1984 7,707 876 6,664 822 14,371 1,698 26,677 3,152
1985 7,817 890 6,763 889 14,580 1,779 26,127 3,188
1986 8,239 993 6,996 967 15,235 1,960 26,684 3,433
1987 8,914 1,081 7,409 1,052 16,323 2,133 27,845 3,639
1988 9,125 1,194 7,538 1,159 16,663 2,353 27,409 3,870
1989 9,433 1,211 7,807 1,206 17,240 2,417 27,204 3,814
1990 10,149 1,358 8,390 1,303 18,539 2,661 27,979 4,016
1991 11,165 1,373 9,191 1,300 20,356 2,673 29,396 3,860
1992 12,258 1,459 9,993 1,378 22,250 2,837 31,363 3,999
1993 12,270 1,518 10,016 1,438 22,286 2,956 30,637 4,064
1994 12,512 1,680 10,285 1,621 22,797 3,301 30,680 4,443
1995 12,019 1,770 10,014 1,751 22,032 3,521 28,963 4,629
1996 11,065 1,633 9,346 1,633 20,411 3,266 26,177 4,189
1997 4 9,748 1,273 7,799 1,098 17,547 2,371 21,960 2,967
1998 7,518 1,231 7,096 1,028 14,614 2,259 18,021 2,786
1999 6,475 1,407 6,975 884 13,449 2,291 16,292 2,775
2000 5,444 1,570 5,736 1,032 11,180 2,302 13,133 3,057
2001 4,772 1,598 5,390 1,042 10,163 2,639 11,569 3,005
2002 4,554 1,633 4,854 983 9,408 2,617 10,551 2,935
2003 5,820 1,592 4,398 859 10,219 2,451 11,195 2,685
2004 4,717 1,471 5,652 828 10,368 2,300 11,103 2,463
2005 5,193 1,507 5,546 870 10,739 2,377 11,136 2,464
2006 4,926 1,525 4,980 886 9,906 2,411 9,906 2,411

Table TANF 5.
Federal and State TANF Program and Other Related Spending: 1997 – 2006

[In millions of dollars]

Fiscal Year Cash & Work-Based Assistance Work Activities Child Care Transpor-
tation
Adminis-
tration
Systems Transitional Services Other Expenditures Total Expenditures
Note: Administration and Systems, shown separately here in Table TANF 5, can be combined to show total administrative costs, as in Table TANF 3.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Financial Services (available online at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofs/data/index.html).
Federal TANF Grants
1997 7,708 467 14 872 109 0 862 10,032
1998 7,168 763 252 938 224 6 1,136 10,487
1999 6,475 1,225 604 1,070 337 17 1,595 11,323
2000 5,444 1,606 1,553 496 1,328 242 2,715 13,384
2001 4,772 1,983 1,583 522 1,375 223 4,325 14,782
2002 4,554 2,121 1,572 339 1,339 294 4,368 14,588
2003 5,820 1,937 1,698 434 1,307 285 4,772 16,254
2004 4,717 1,613 1,427 354 1,220 251 4,811 14,393
2005 5,193 1,702 1,279 393 1,277 230 4,089 14,164
2006 4,926 1,681 1,238 341 1,294 231 3,859 13,570
State Maintenance of Effort Expenditures in the TANF Program
1997 5,955 311 752 704 101 9 926 8,758
1998 6,879 520 890 883 138 11 1,301 10,623
1999 6,541 503 1,135 743 118 23 1,334 10,397
2000 5,432 884 1,893 150 921 92 1,170 10,541
2001 4,887 685 1,730 113 920 83 1,195 9,613
2002 3,994 582 1,860 221 877 66 1,554 9,154
2003 3,597 596 1,993 73 766 60 1,441 8,526
2004 4,729 501 1,878 119 721 55 1,330 9,333
2005 4,537 429 1,761 111 776 46 1,489 9,148
2006 4,105 630 2,120 102 793 41 1,323 9,114
State Maintenance of Effort Expenditures in Separate State Programs
1997 69 12 111 0 0 18 210
1998 216 3 137 6 1 28 391
1999 434 26 257 22 0 0 126 865
2000 305 11 73 17 19 0 431 856
2001 503 28 34 20 38 1 499 1,125
2002 860 24 72 24 41 -.5 652 1,673
2003 801 66 -223 36 33 -.3 848 1,560
2004 922 40 45 19 52 1.1 1,016 2,095
2005 1,009 36 157 19 46 1.9 999 2,268
2006 875 53 184 29 51 1.3 1,716 2,910
Total Expenditures
1997 13,731 790 877 1,577 211 9 1,805 19,000
1998 14,264 1,286 1,280 1,828 362 17 2,465 21,502
1999 13,449 1,754 1,995 1,835 456 40 3,055 22,585
2000 11,180 2,501 3,519 663 2,267 335 4,316 24,781
2001 10,163 2,696 3,347 655 2,333 306 6,019 25,520
2002 9,408 2,727 3,504 584 2,258 359 6,574 25,414
2003 10,219 2,599 3,468 543 2,106 345 7,060 26,340
2004 10,368 2,154 3,350 492 1,992 307 7,157 25,821
2005 10,739 2,167 3,197 523 2,099 278 6,577 25,580
2006 9,906 2,364 3,542 472 2,138 273 6,898 25,594

Table TANF 6.
Trends in AFDC/TANF Average Monthly Payments: 1962 – 2006

Fiscal
Year
Monthly Benefit per Recipient Average Number of
Persons per Family
Monthly Benefit per Family
(not reduced by Child Support)
Weighted Average 1
Maximum Benefit
(per 3-person Family)
Current Dollars 2006 Dollars Current Dollars 2006 Dollars Current Dollars 2006 Dollars
Note: AFDC benefit amounts have not been reduced by child support collections.  Constant dollar adjustments to 2006 level were made using a CPI-U-RS fiscal-year price index.
1 The maximum benefit for a 3-person family in each state is weighted by that state’s share of total AFDC/TANF + SSP families.
2 Estimated based on the weighted average benefit for a 4-person family.
3 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program.  Beginning in 1997, average monthly benefits are calculated from case-level data rather than by dividing aggregate expenditures on cash assistance by aggregate caseloads, as in the past.  This change was necessary due to uncertainty about the extent to which states may be reporting non-cash basic assistance as well as cash assistance in the expenditure data formerly used to calculate average cash benefits.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Quarterly Public Assistance Statistics, 1992 & 1993 and earlier years along with unpublished data.
1962 $31 $181 3.9 $121 $705 NA NA
1963 31 180 4.0 126 725 NA NA
1964 32 181 4.1 131 746 NA NA
1965 34 188 4.2 140 784 NA NA
1966 35 192 4.2 146 798 NA NA
1967 36 193 4.1 150 799 NA NA
1968 40 203 4.1 162 832 NA NA
1969 43 214 4.0 173 855 $186 2 $923
1970 46 216 3.9 178 840 194 2 916
1971 48 216 3.8 180 814 201 2 908
1972 51 224 3.6 187 816 205 2 895
1973 53 221 3.5 187 782 213 2 891
1974 57 218 3.4 194 747 229 2 882
1975 63 222 3.3 209 734 243 854
1976 71 233 3.2 226 742 257 845
1977 78 238 3.1 241 738 271 830
1978 83 238 3.0 250 719 284 817
1979 87 230 3.0 257 679 301 795
1980 94 224 2.9 274 650 320 761
1981 96 207 2.9 277 598 326 704
1982 103 208 2.9 300 607 331 668
1983 106 206 2.9 311 600 336 650
1984 110 205 2.9 322 597 352 653
1985 112 201 2.9 329 590 369 661
1986 115 202 2.9 339 593 383 671
1987 123 210 2.9 359 613 393 671
1988 127 209 2.9 370 609 403 663
1989 131 207 2.9 381 601 413 651
1990 135 203 2.9 389 587 420 634
1991 135 195 2.9 388 560 424 613
1992 136 192 2.9 389 548 419 590
1993 131 181 2.8 373 513 414 570
1994 134 180 2.8 376 507 416 559
1995 134 177 2.8 376 496 418 550
1996 135 173 2.8 374 480 419 538
1997 3 130 163 2.8 362 453 418 524
1998 130 161 2.7 358 441 429 529
1999 133 161 2.7 357 432 450 545
2000 130 153 2.7 349 410 446 524
2001 134 153 2.6 351 400 448 510
2002 141 158 2.6 364 408 452 507
2003 140 153 2.5 354 388 455 498
2004 145 155 2.5 360 386 462 495
2005 151 157 2.4 370 383 468 485
2006 154 154 2.4 372 372 495 495

Table TANF 7.
Characteristics of AFDC/TANF Families: Selected Years 1969 – 2006

  May May March Fiscal year 1
1969 1975 1979 1983 1988 1992 1996 2000 2003 2006
Note: Figures are percentages of families/cases unless noted otherwise.
1 Percentages are based on the average monthly TANF caseload during the year. Hawaii and the territories are not included in 1983.  Data after 1986 include the territories and Hawaii.  Unlike most of the figures in this report, this table does not include families from Separate State Programs (SSP).
2 Adults that live in TANF families with children are sometimes excluded from the assistance unit because they have been sanctioned, receive disability income from Supplemental Security Income (SSI), have been time-limited, do not qualify based on citizenship requirements, or are non-parental caretakers such as relatives or other adults taking responsibility for the children.
3 Presence of income is measured as a percentage of adult recipients, not families, in 1998 and subsequent years.
4 For years prior to 1983, data are for mothers only.
5 Calculated on the basis of total number of families.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, unpublished data and Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of TANF Recipients: TANF Annual Report to Congress selected years.
Avg. Family Size (persons) 4.0 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.3
Number of Child Recipients
    One 26.6 37.9 42.3 43.4 42.5 42.5 43.9 44.2 47.9 50.2
    Two 23.0 26.0 28.1 29.8 30.2 30.2 29.9 28.4 27.8 27.2
    Three 17.7 16.1 15.6 15.2 15.8 15.5 15.0 15.3 13.8 13.2
    Four or More 32.5 20.0 13.9 10.1 9.9 10.1 9.2 10.1 8.6 7.5
    Unknown NA NA NA 1.5 1.7 0.7 1.3 2.0 1.9 2.0
Families with No Adult in Asst. Unit 2 10.1 12.5 14.6 8.3 9.6 14.8 21.5 34.4 40.9 47.2
Families with Non-Recipients 33.1 34.8 NA 36.9 36.8 38.9 49.9
Median Months on AFDC/TANF
    Since Most Recent Opening 23.0 31.0 29.0 26.0 26.3 22.5 23.6
Presence of Assistance
    Living in Public Housing 12.8 14.6 NA 10.0 9.6 9.2 8.8 17.7 19.1 17.2
    Participating in Food Stamp or Donated Food Program 52.9 75.1 75.1 83.0 84.6 87.3 89.3 79.9 80.9 80.7
Presence of Income
    With Earnings NA 14.6 12.8 5.7 8.4 7.4 11.1 23.6 3 19.5 3 18.4 3
    No Non-AFDC/TANF Income 56.0 71.1 80.6 86.8 79.6 78.9 76.0 71.6 3 74.4 3 76.6 3
Adult Employment Status (percent of adults)
    Employed 6.6 11.3 26.4 22.9 21.6
    Unemployed 49.2 49.0 54.8
    Not in Labor Force 24.3 28.1 23.6
Adult Women's employment status (percent of adult female recipients):4
    Full-time job 8.2 10.4 8.7 1.5 2.2 2.2 4.7
    Part-time job 6.3 5.7 5.4 3.4 4.2 4.2 5.4
Marital Status (percent of adults)
    Single 65.3 67.3 69.9
    Married 12.4 10.7 10.5
    Separated 13.1 12.8 11.4
    Widowed 0.7 0.5 0.6
    Divorced 8.5 8.7 7.9
Basis for Child's Eligibility (percent children):
    Incapacitated  11.7 5 7.7 5.3 3.4 3.7 4.1 4.3
    Unemployed 4.6 5 3.7 4.1 8.7 6.5 8.2 8.3
    Death 5.5 5 3.7 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6
    Divorce or Separation  43.3 5 48.3 44.7 38.5 34.6 30.0 24.3
    Absent, No Marriage Tie  27.9 5 31.0 37.8 44.3 51.9 53.1 58.6
    Absent, Other Reason 3.5 5 4.0 5.9 1.4 1.6 2.0 2.4
    Unknown 1.7 0.9 0.6

Table TANF 8.
AFDC/TANF Benefits by State: Selected Fiscal Years 1978 – 2006

[In millions of dollars]

State 1978 1984 1986 1988 1990 1994 1998 2000 2003 2006
United States $10,621 $14,371 $15,236 $16,663 $18,543 $22,798 $14,614 $11,180 $10,219 $9,906
Note: Benefits refers to total cash benefits paid, (see Table TANF 4) but does not include emergency assistance payments.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Program Support, Office of Management Services, data from the ACF-196 TANF Report and ACF-231 AFDC Line by Line Report.
Alabama $78 $74 $68 $62 $62 $92 $44 $36 $46 $35
Alaska 17 37 46 54 60 113 77 55 50 36
Arizona 30 67 79 103 138 266 145 107 175 137
Arkansas 51 39 48 53 57 57 26 34 22 15
California 1,813 3,207 3,574 4,091 4,955 6,088 4,128 3,643 3,119 3,480
Colorado 74 107 107 125 137 158 80 48 51 63
Connecticut 168 226 223 218 295 397 305 166 133 124
Delaware 28 28 25 24 29 40 24 20 20 18
Dist. of Columbia 91 75 77 76 84 126 97 72 68 62
Florida 145 251 261 318 418 806 357 234 251 170
Georgia 103 149 223 266 321 428 313 180 169 96
Hawaii 83 83 73 77 99 163 153 141 91 85
Idaho 21 21 19 19 20 30 6 3 6 7
Illinois 699 845 886 815 839 914 771 269 115 124
Indiana 118 153 148 167 170 228 104 87 139 109
Iowa 107 159 170 155 152 169 104 79 81 74
Kansas 73 87 91 97 105 123 41 43 55 63
Kentucky 122 135 104 143 179 198 147 104 102 101
Louisiana 97 145 162 182 188 168 103 58 67 45
Maine 51 69 84 80 101 108 80 73 66 65
Maryland 166 229 250 250 296 314 192 196 32 106
Massachusetts 476 406 471 558 630 730 442 336 339 320
Michigan 780 1,214 1,248 1,231 1,211 1,132 589 386 390 422
Minnesota 164 287 322 338 355 379 276 193 193 129
Mississippi 33 58 74 85 86 82 60 18 36 22
Missouri 152 196 209 215 228 287 180 139 130 122
Montana 15 27 37 41 40 49 30 21 31 17
Nebraska 38 56 62 56 59 62 41 41 59 63
Nevada 8 10 16 20 27 48 39 28 48 33
New Hampshire 21 16 20 21 32 62 39 32 39 35
New Jersey 489 485 509 459 451 531 372 222 222 78
New Mexico 32 49 51 56 61 144 104 113 78 74
New York 1,689 1,916 2,099 2,140 2,259 2,913 2,149 1,554 1,605 1,624
North Carolina 138 149 138 206 247 353 211 140 133 94
North Dakota 14 16 20 22 24 26 22 12 18 10
Ohio 441 725 804 805 877 1,016 546 368 304 331
Oklahoma 74 85 100 119 132 165 72 78 58 28
Oregon 148 101 120 128 145 197 141 34 82 89
Pennsylvania 726 724 389 747 798 935 523 573 324 393
Rhode Island 59 71 79 82 99 136 117 105 83 65
South Carolina 52 75 103 91 96 115 52 91 49 39
South Dakota 18 17 15 21 22 25 14 10 11 12
Tennessee 77 83 100 125 168 215 108 146 138 104
Texas 122 229 281 344 416 544 315 248 323 139
Utah 41 52 55 61 64 77 50 40 44 37
Vermont 21 40 40 40 48 65 47 39 34 35
Virginia 136 165 179 169 177 253 123 186 129 136
Washington 175 294 375 401 438 610 450 312 269 284
West Virginia 53 75 109 107 110 126 52 49 68 37
Wisconsin 260 519 444 506 440 425 145 7 109 111
Wyoming 6 13 16 19 19 21 7 9 15 10

Table TANF 9.
Comparison of Federal Funding for AFDC and Related Programs and 2006 Family Assistance Grants Awarded under PRWORA

[In millions of dollars]

State FY 1996
Grants for AFDC, EA,
& JOBS 1
FY 2006
Family Assistance Grants
& Supplemental 2
FY 2006
Bonus
Awards 3
FY 2006
Total
Awards
Increase
of FY 2006
over
FY 1996 Level
Percent Increase
from FY 1996 Level
United States $15,067 $16,647 $19.2 $16,657 $1,590 11
1 Includes Administration and FAMIS but excludes IV-A child care.  AFDC benefits include the Federal share of child support collections to be comparable to the Family Assistance Grant.  The 1996 figures have been revised since earlier versions of this report, to reflect upward revisions in states' reports of expenditures on the JOBS program.
2 The FY 2006 Family Assistance Grants and Supplemental is net of the Tribal Grants amounts.
3 FY 2006 Bonus Awards include Contingency Fund Grants but not penalties assessed.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Financial Services.
Alabama $79.0 $104.4 $0.0 $104.4 $25.4 32
Alaska 60.7 54.8 0.0 54.8 -5.8 -10
Arizona 200.6 226.1 0.0 226.1 25.5 13
Arkansas 54.3 63.0 0.0 63.0 8.7 16
California 3,545.6 3,669.9 0.0 3,669.9 124.3 4
Colorado 138.9 149.6 0.0 149.6 10.7 8
Connecticut 221.1 266.8 0.0 264.4 43.3 20
Delaware 30.2 32.3 0.0 31.4 1.2 4
Dist. of Columbia 77.1 92.6 0.0 90.5 13.4 17
Florida 504.7 622.7 0.0 622.7 118.0 23
Georgia 301.2 368.0 0.0 368.0 66.8 22
Hawaii 98.4 98.9 0.0 98.9 0.5 1
Idaho 31.3 33.9 0.0 33.9 2.6 8
Illinois 593.8 585.1 0.0 585.1 -8.8 -1
Indiana 121.4 206.8 0.0 206.8 85.4 70
Iowa 129.3 131.5 0.0 131.5 2.2 2
Kansas 86.9 101.9 0.0 101.9 15.0 17
Kentucky 171.6 181.3 0.0 181.3 9.6 6
Louisiana 122.4 181.0 0.0 181.0 58.6 48
Maine 73.2 78.1 0.0 78.1 4.9 7
Maryland 207.6 229.1 0.0 227.5 19.9 10
Massachusetts 372.0 459.4 0.0 459.4 87.3 23
Michigan 581.5 775.4 0.0 775.4 193.9 33
Minnesota 239.3 263.4 0.0 263.4 24.1 10
Mississippi 68.6 95.8 0.0 95.8 27.2 40
Missouri 207.9 217.1 0.0 217.1 9.2 4
Montana 39.2 39.2 0.0 39.2 0.0 0
Nebraska 56.2 57.8 0.0 57.8 1.6 3
Nevada 41.2 47.7 0.0 46.4 5.1 12
New Hampshire 36.0 38.5 0.0 38.5 2.5 7
New Jersey 353.4 404.0 0.0 404.0 50.7 14
New Mexico 129.9 117.1 0.0 117.1 -12.8 -10
New York 2,332.7 2,442.9 0.0 2,442.9 110.2 5
North Carolina 311.9 338.3 0.0 338.3 26.5 8
North Dakota 24.5 26.4 0.0 26.4 1.9 8
Ohio 564.5 728.0 0.0 728.0 163.5 29
Oklahoma 125.1 147.6 0.0 147.6 22.5 18
Oregon 146.4 166.8 0.0 166.8 20.4 14
Pennsylvania 780.1 719.5 0.0 719.5 -60.6 -8
Rhode Island 82.9 95.0 0.0 95.0 12.2 15
South Carolina 99.4 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.5 1
South Dakota 19.7 21.3 0.0 21.3 1.5 8
Tennessee 178.9 213.1 19.2 232.2 53.3 30
Texas 437.1 539.0 0.0 539.0 101.9 23
Utah 68.0 84.3 0.0 84.3 16.4 24
Vermont 42.4 47.4 0.0 47.4 5.0 12
Virginia 134.6 158.3 0.0 158.3 23.6 18
Washington 393.2 382.9 0.0 382.9 -10.3 -3
West Virginia 95.1 110.2 0.0 109.2 14.0 15
Wisconsin 241.6 314.5 0.0 314.5 72.9 30
Wyoming 14.4 18.4 0.0 18.4 4.0 28

Table TANF 10.
AFDC/TANF Caseload by State: October 1989 to March 2007 Peak

[In thousands]

State Peak Caseload Oct ‘89 to June ’06 Date Peak Occurred Oct ’89 to June ’06 Sept ’96
AFDC
Caseload
March ’07 TANF & SSP Caseload Percent Decline 1 Sept ’96 to March ’07 Percent Decline Peak to
March ’07
United States 5,098 Mar-94 4,346 1,735 60 66
Note: these data do not include Tribal TANF families (about 8,000) in number).  This makes little difference nationally, but in States like Wyoming, New Mexico, and Arizona, their exclusion under TANF overstates the real decline from AFDC years.
1Negative values denote percent increase.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Division of Data Collection and Analysis.
Alabama 52.3 Mar-93 40.7 18.0 56 66
Alaska 13.4 Apr-94 12.3 3.4 73 75
Arizona 72.8 Dec-93 61.8 35.7 42 51
Arkansas 27.1 Mar-92 22.1 8.6 61 68
California 933.1 Mar-95 870.3 471.8 46 49
Colorado 43.7 Dec-93 33.6 11.1 67 75
Connecticut 61.9 Mar-95 57.1 20.7 64 67
Delaware 11.8 Apr-94 10.5 4.6 56 61
Dist. of Columbia 27.5 Apr-94 25.1 5.3 79 81
Florida 259.9 Nov-92 200.3 47.3 76 82
Georgia 142.8 Nov-93 120.9 24.8 79 83
Hawaii 23.4 Jun-97 21.9 8.5 61 64
Idaho 9.5 Mar-95 8.4 1.7 80 83
Illinois 243.1 Aug-94 217.8 31.3 86 87
Indiana 76.1 Sep-93 49.7 41.2 17 46
Iowa 40.7 Apr-94 31.1 16.6 46 59
Kansas 30.8 Aug-93 23.4 14.6 38 53
Kentucky 84.0 Mar-93 70.4 29.8 58 65
Louisiana 94.7 May-90 66.5 10.7 84 89
Maine 24.4 Aug-93 19.7 11.0 44 55
Maryland 81.8 May-95 68.9 19.1 72 77
Massachusetts 115.7 Aug-93 84.3 44.6 47 61
Michigan 233.6 Apr-91 167.5 75.2 55 68
Minnesota 66.2 Jun-92 57.2 26.5 54 60
Mississippi 61.8 Nov-91 45.2 11.2 75 82
Missouri 93.7 Mar-94 79.1 42.8 46 54
Montana 12.3 Mar-94 9.8 3.2 68 74
Nebraska 17.2 Mar-93 14.4 9.5 34 44
Nevada 16.3 Mar-95 13.2 6.4 51 61
New Hampshire 11.8 Apr-94 8.9 5.1 42 56
New Jersey 132.6 Nov-92 100.8 34.9 65 74
New Mexico 34.9 Nov-94 33.0 14.0 57 60
New York 463.7 Dec-94 412.7 159.4 61 66
North Carolina 134.1 Mar-94 107.5 25.5 76 81
North Dakota 6.6 Apr-93 4.7 2.0 57 70
Ohio 269.8 Mar-92 201.9 77.6 62 71
Oklahoma 51.3 Mar-93 35.3 9.0 74 82
Oregon 43.8 Apr-93 28.5 18.9 34 57
Pennsylvania 212.5 Sep-94 180.1 59.9 67 72
Rhode Island 22.9 Apr-94 20.5 10.9 47 52
South Carolina 54.6 Jan-93 42.9 15.7 64 71
South Dakota 7.4 Apr-93 5.7 2.8 50 62
Tennessee 112.6 Nov-93 96.2 62.4 35 45
Texas 287.5 Dec-93 238.8 61.6 74 79
Utah 18.7 Mar-93 14.0 5.0 64 73
Vermont 10.3 Apr-92 8.7 4.5 49 57
Virginia 76.0 Apr-94 60.5 31.3 48 59
Washington 104.8 Feb-95 96.8 52.3 46 50
West Virginia 41.9 Apr-93 37.6 9.8 74 77
Wisconsin 82.9 Jan-92 49.9 17.2 66 79
Wyoming 7.1 Aug-92 4.3 0.3 94 96

Table TANF 11.
Average Monthly AFDC/TANF Recipients by State: Selected Fiscal Years

[In thousands]

  1965 1970 1980 1990 1994 1996 2000 2006 Percent Change
1996-00 2000-06
United States 4,323 7,415 10,597 11,460 14,226 12,645 6,324 4,746 -50 -25
Note: Recipients in 2000 and beyond include both TANF and SSP recipients.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance (available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/caseload/caseloadindex.htm).
Alabama 78 123 180 130 132 105 46 46 -56 -1
Alaska 5 8 15 20 38 36 22 10 -38 -56
Arizona 40 51 51 124 201 172 87 87 -49 0
Arkansas 30 45 85 71 69 58 29 18 -50 -39
California 528 1,148 1,387 1,902 2,639 2,626 1,574 1,198 -40 -24
Colorado 42 66 77 102 119 99 29 37 -71 30
Connecticut 59 83 139 120 166 162 73 48 -55 -33
Delaware 12 20 32 21 27 23 13 13 -43 -5
Dist. of Columbia 20 40 85 49 74 70 47 40 -33 -15
Florida 106 204 256 370 669 561 158 90 -72 -43
Georgia 71 198 221 293 393 353 129 63 -64 -51
Guam 1 2 5 4 7 8 10 11 26 9
Hawaii 14 25 60 44 62 67 75 26 12 -64
Idaho 10 16 21 17 23 23 2 3 -90 32
Illinois 262 368 672 636 712 655 256 92 -61 -64
Indiana 48 73 157 154 216 148 103 130 -30 26
Iowa 44 64 104 98 110 89 54 49 -39 -10
Kansas 36 53 68 77 87 68 32 45 -54 42
Kentucky 81 129 167 175 208 175 89 70 -49 -21
Louisiana 104 202 213 282 248 236 75 27 -68 -64
Maine 19 36 60 56 64 56 32 32 -42 -2
Maryland 80 131 212 186 222 204 77 54 -62 -30
Massachusetts 94 208 350 263 307 237 102 98 -57 -3
Michigan 162 253 685 655 666 527 207 220 -61 6
Minnesota 51 76 135 171 187 171 116 80 -32 -31
Mississippi 83 115 173 179 159 129 34 28 -74 -18
Missouri 107 140 199 211 263 232 131 113 -44 -14
Montana 7 13 19 29 35 31 13 10 -58 -23
Nebraska 16 30 35 43 45 40 28 33 -30 20
Nevada 5 12 12 23 38 38 16 17 -58 8
New Hampshire 4 9 22 16 30 24 14 14 -42 2
New Jersey 104 286 459 309 335 288 138 109 -52 -21
New Mexico 30 51 53 57 102 101 72 43 -28 -41
New York 517 1,052 1,100 981 1,255 1,184 724 455 -39 -37
North Carolina 111 124 198 223 333 278 100 59 -64 -41
North Dakota 8 11 13 16 16 13 8 7 -44 -9
Ohio 183 266 513 632 685 546 245 170 -55 -31
Oklahoma 73 95 89 112 131 105 36 23 -66 -37
Oregon 31 75 102 89 114 87 39 42 -55 7
Pennsylvania 303 426 629 521 620 544 250 245 -54 -2
Puerto Rico 202 223 168 190 183 155 92 39 -40 -58
Rhode Island 24 38 52 46 63 58 50 31 -15 -37
South Carolina 30 52 153 111 140 119 41 42 -65 3
South Dakota 11 16 20 19 19 16 7 6 -59 -10
Tennessee 76 129 162 211 300 260 147 185 -43 25
Texas 91 214 308 611 788 684 342 169 -50 -51
Utah 22 33 37 45 50 40 23 18 -44 -19
Vermont 5 12 23 22 28 25 16 12 -36 -26
Virgin Islands 1 2 3 3 4 5 3 1 -35 -61
Virginia 46 87 166 151 195 162 75 82 -53 9
Washington 71 109 154 228 292 274 168 136 -39 -19
West Virginia 116 93 77 111 114 95 32 26 -66 -18
Wisconsin 45 79 213 237 226 170 40 41 -76 1
Wyoming 4 5 7 14 16 13 1 1 -91 -53

Table TANF 12.
AFDC/TANF Recipiency Rates for Total Population by State: Selected Fiscal Years

[In percent]

  1965 1970 1980 1990 1994 1996 2000 2006 Percent Change
1996-00 2000-06
United States 2.1 3.5 4.6 4.5 5.3 4.6 2.2 1.6 -52 -29
Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of AFDC recipients in each state during the given fiscal year expressed as a percent of the total resident population as of July 1 of that year.  The numerators are from Table TANF 11.
Sources: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Census Bureau (resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/popest/states/).
Alabama 2.2 3.6 4.6 3.2 3.1 2.4 1.0 1.0 -57 -4
Alaska 1.8 2.6 3.7 3.7 6.3 5.9 3.6 1.5 -40 -59
Arizona 2.6 2.9 1.9 3.4 4.7 3.7 1.7 1.4 -55 -16
Arkansas 1.5 2.3 3.7 3.0 2.8 2.3 1.1 0.6 -52 -42
California 2.9 5.7 5.8 6.3 8.4 8.2 4.6 3.3 -44 -29
Colorado 2.2 3.0 2.6 3.1 3.2 2.5 0.7 0.8 -73 18
Connecticut 2.1 2.7 4.5 3.6 5.0 4.8 2.1 1.4 -56 -35
Delaware 2.4 3.6 5.4 3.2 3.8 3.2 1.7 1.5 -46 -12
Dist. of Columbia 2.5 5.3 13.3 8.1 12.6 12.3 8.2 6.8 -33 -17
Florida 1.8 3.0 2.6 2.8 4.7 3.8 1.0 0.5 -74 -50
Georgia 1.6 4.3 4.0 4.5 5.5 4.7 1.6 0.7 -67 -57
Hawaii 1.9 3.2 6.2 3.9 5.2 5.5 6.1 2.1 11 -66
Idaho 1.4 2.2 2.2 1.6 2.0 1.9 0.2 0.2 -91 17
Illinois 2.5 3.3 5.9 5.6 6.0 5.4 2.1 0.7 -62 -65
Indiana 1.0 1.4 2.9 2.8 3.7 2.5 1.7 2.1 -32 21
Iowa 1.6 2.3 3.6 3.5 3.9 3.1 1.9 1.7 -40 -11
Kansas 1.6 2.4 2.9 3.1 3.4 2.6 1.2 1.6 -55 39
Kentucky 2.5 4.0 4.6 4.7 5.4 4.5 2.2 1.7 -51 -24
Louisiana 2.9 5.6 5.0 6.7 5.7 5.4 1.7 0.6 -69 -62
Maine 1.9 3.6 5.4 4.5 5.2 4.5 2.5 2.4 -43 -5
Maryland 2.2 3.3 5.0 3.9 4.4 4.0 1.5 1.0 -64 -34
Massachusetts 1.8 3.7 6.1 4.4 5.0 3.8 1.6 1.5 -58 -4
Michigan 2.0 2.9 7.4 7.0 6.9 5.4 2.1 2.2 -62 5
Minnesota 1.4 2.0 3.3 3.9 4.1 3.6 2.3 1.6 -35 -34
Mississippi 3.6 5.2 6.9 6.9 5.9 4.7 1.2 1.0 -75 -19
Missouri 2.4 3.0 4.0 4.1 4.9 4.3 2.3 1.9 -45 -17
Montana 1.0 1.9 2.4 3.6 4.0 3.5 1.4 1.0 -59 -27
Nebraska 1.1 2.0 2.2 2.7 2.8 2.4 1.6 1.9 -31 16
Nevada 1.2 2.4 1.5 1.9 2.5 2.3 0.8 0.7 -65 -12
New Hampshire 0.7 1.2 2.4 1.5 2.7 2.1 1.1 1.1 -45 -3
New Jersey 1.5 4.0 6.2 4.0 4.2 3.5 1.6 1.3 -54 -23
New Mexico 3.0 5.0 4.1 3.8 6.1 5.8 4.0 2.2 -31 -44
New York 2.9 5.8 6.3 5.4 6.8 6.4 3.8 2.4 -40 -38
North Carolina 2.2 2.4 3.4 3.4 4.6 3.7 1.2 0.7 -67 -46
North Dakota 1.2 1.7 2.0 2.4 2.6 2.1 1.2 1.1 -43 -9
Ohio 1.8 2.5 4.8 5.8 6.1 4.9 2.2 1.5 -56 -31
Oklahoma 3.0 3.7 2.9 3.6 4.0 3.1 1.0 0.6 -67 -39
Oregon 1.6 3.6 3.9 3.1 3.7 2.7 1.1 1.1 -58 -0
Pennsylvania 2.6 3.6 5.3 4.4 5.1 4.4 2.0 2.0 -54 -3
Rhode Island 2.7 4.0 5.5 4.6 6.2 5.7 4.7 3.0 -17 -37
South Carolina 1.2 2.0 4.9 3.2 3.8 3.1 1.0 1.0 -67 -5
South Dakota 1.6 2.4 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.2 0.9 0.8 -59 -14
Tennessee 2.0 3.3 3.5 4.3 5.7 4.8 2.6 3.0 -46 18
Texas 0.9 1.9 2.1 3.6 4.2 3.5 1.6 0.7 -54 -56
Utah 2.2 3.1 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.0 1.0 0.7 -48 -29
Vermont 1.4 2.6 4.4 3.9 4.8 4.3 2.7 1.9 -38 -28
Virginia 1.0 1.9 3.1 2.4 3.0 2.4 1.1 1.1 -56 2
Washington 2.4 3.2 3.7 4.7 5.4 4.9 2.8 2.1 -42 -25
West Virginia 6.4 5.3 4.0 6.2 6.3 5.2 1.8 1.5 -66 -18
Wisconsin 1.1 1.8 4.5 4.8 4.4 3.3 0.8 0.7 -77 -2
Wyoming 1.1 1.5 1.4 3.1 3.4 2.6 0.2 0.1 -91 -55

Table TANF 13.
Average Number of AFDC/TANF Child Recipients by State: Selected Fiscal Years

[In thousands]

  1965 1970 1980 1990 1994 1996 2000 2006 Percent Change
1996-00 2000-06
United States 3,242 5,483 7,320 7,755 9,611 8,672 4,598 3,561 -47 -23
Note: From FY 2000 onward, TANF child recipients include both TANF and SSP child recipients.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance (available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/caseload/caseloadindex.htm).
Alabama 62 96 129 93 96 79 37 35 -53 -5
Alaska 4 6 10 13 24 23 15 7 -35 -55
Arizona 31 39 38 87 136 118 66 66 -44 -1
Arkansas 23 34 62 51 49 42 22 14 -48 -38
California 391 816 932 1,294 1,804 1,805 1,163 961 -36 -17
Colorado 33 50 53 69 80 68 22 27 -68 24
Connecticut 43 62 97 81 111 108 50 33 -53 -34
Delaware 9 15 22 14 19 16 9 10 -41 2
Dist. of Columbia 16 31 59 34 51 48 34 30 -29 -12
Florida 85 160 184 264 463 395 124 75 -68 -40
Georgia 54 150 161 206 274 251 101 55 -60 -45
Guam 1 1 4 3 5 6 NA NA NA NA
Hawaii 10 18 40 29 41 44 50 18 14 -64
Idaho 7 11 14 11 16 16 2 3 -88 40
Illinois 202 283 473 436 486 456 193 73 -58 -62
Indiana 36 55 111 105 145 104 74 99 -29 33
Iowa 32 46 69 64 72 59 36 32 -39 -12
Kansas 28 41 49 52 59 48 23 31 -53 35
Kentucky 58 93 118 117 137 120 64 53 -47 -17
Louisiana 79 157 156 199 180 162 59 23 -64 -61
Maine 14 26 40 35 40 35 22 21 -38 -2
Maryland 61 100 145 124 151 140 56 40 -60 -29
Massachusetts 71 153 228 168 197 153 73 67 -53 -7
Michigan 119 190 460 427 439 354 153 160 -57 4
Minnesota 39 58 91 110 124 116 81 57 -30 -30
Mississippi 66 93 128 129 116 96 27 21 -72 -20
Missouri 82 106 135 139 176 162 94 77 -42 -18
Montana 6 10 13 19 23 21 9 7 -58 -21
Nebraska 12 23 25 29 31 28 20 23 -29 18
Nevada 4 9 8 16 27 27 12 13 -56 9
New Hampshire 3 7 15 11 19 16 10 10 -39 2
New Jersey 79 209 318 213 228 195 102 77 -48 -25
New Mexico 23 39 35 37 66 65 51 31 -23 -39
New York 380 759 759 658 813 771 491 321 -36 -35
North Carolina 83 94 141 152 223 191 76 47 -60 -38
North Dakota 6 8 9 10 11 9 5 5 -39 -12
Ohio 136 198 348 414 455 382 180 130 -53 -28
Oklahoma 55 71 65 77 90 74 28 19 -63 -33
Oregon 23 52 65 60 76 60 29 31 -52 8
Pennsylvania 217 307 432 345 417 368 184 173 -50 -6
Puerto Rico 161 166 118 130 124 105 64 27 -39 -57
Rhode Island 18 27 36 30 41 39 34 22 -14 -33
South Carolina 24 40 109 80 102 89 32 31 -64 -1
South Dakota 8 12 15 13 14 12 5 5 -54 -7
Tennessee 58 99 115 144 203 181 107 132 -41 23
Texas 68 162 225 428 549 484 252 139 -48 -45
Utah 16 23 24 31 33 27 16 14 -40 -16
Vermont 4 8 14 14 17 16 10 8 -34 -25
Virgin Islands 1 2 2 2 3 4 2 1 -38 -58
Virginia 35 66 116 104 134 114 55 58 -52 5
Washington 50 76 97 148 187 177 115 95 -35 -17
West Virginia 80 65 58 68 72 62 22 19 -64 -14
Wisconsin 34 60 142 158 153 123 34 34 -72 0
Wyoming 3 4 5 9 11 9 1 0 -90 -49

Table TANF 14.
AFDC/TANF Recipiency Rates for Children by State: Selected Fiscal Years 1965 – 2006

[In percent]

  1965 1970 1980 1990 1994 1996 2000 2006 Percent Change
1996-00 2000-06
United States 4.4 7.6 11.3 11.9 14.0 12.4 6.3 4.8 -49 -18
Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of AFDC child recipients in each State during the given fiscal year as a percent of the resident population under 18 years of age as of July 1 of that year.  The numerators are from Table TANF 13.
Sources: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Census Bureau (resident population by state and age available online at http://www.census.gov/popest/states/).
Alabama 4.6 7.7 11.1 8.8 8.9 7.3 3.3 3.2 -55 -5
Alaska 3.1 5.0 8.0 7.4 12.8 12.4 7.9 3.7 -36 -53
Arizona 4.8 6.0 4.8 8.6 12.1 9.7 4.7 4.0 -52 -14
Arkansas 3.1 5.2 9.3 8.2 7.7 6.4 3.2 2.0 -49 -39
Colorado 4.4 6.4 6.5 7.8 8.3 6.8 1.9 2.3 -72 20
Connecticut 4.4 6.1 11.8 10.8 14.2 13.7 5.9 4.1 -57 -31
Delaware 4.7 7.5 13.4 8.7 10.5 8.9 4.9 4.7 -45 -5
Dist. of Columbia 6.0 13.8 40.9 30.7 44.5 44.1 31.4 26.5 -29 -16
Florida 4.3 7.6 7.8 8.8 14.1 11.6 3.3 1.9 -71 -44
Georgia 3.2 9.1 9.8 11.8 14.6 12.8 4.6 2.2 -64 -51
Hawaii 3.6 6.5 14.5 10.5 13.6 14.5 17.2 6.0 19 -65
Idaho 2.7 4.2 4.7 3.6 4.6 4.6 0.5 0.7 -89 32
Illinois 5.3 7.5 14.6 14.8 15.7 14.4 6.0 2.3 -58 -62
Indiana 2.0 3.0 6.9 7.3 9.8 7.0 4.7 6.2 -33 34
Iowa 3.2 4.7 8.4 8.8 9.9 8.2 5.0 4.5 -38 -12
Kansas 3.5 5.4 7.5 7.9 8.5 7.0 3.2 4.4 -54 36
Kentucky 4.9 8.3 10.9 12.4 14.1 12.4 6.7 5.3 -46 -21
Louisiana 5.5 11.3 11.8 16.5 14.6 13.3 4.9 2.1 -63 -57
Maine 3.9 7.7 12.5 11.5 13.1 11.8 7.5 7.6 -36 1
Maryland 4.6 7.3 12.4 10.6 12.0 11.1 4.1 2.9 -63 -29
Massachusetts 3.8 8.1 15.3 12.4 13.9 10.6 4.9 4.7 -53 -6
Michigan 3.7 5.8 16.7 17.4 17.4 13.9 5.9 6.4 -57 9
Minnesota 2.9 4.2 7.7 9.4 10.1 9.3 6.4 4.5 -32 -29
Mississippi 7.0 11.1 15.7 17.6 15.3 12.7 3.5 2.8 -72 -20
Missouri 5.2 6.9 9.9 10.6 12.9 11.6 6.6 5.4 -43 -18
Montana 2.0 4.0 5.7 8.4 9.7 8.9 3.8 3.1 -57 -18
Nebraska 2.3 4.4 5.5 6.8 7.0 6.1 4.4 5.2 -28 17
Nevada 2.5 5.2 3.8 5.0 7.1 6.5 2.2 2.1 -66 -7
New Hampshire 1.4 2.6 5.8 3.9 6.6 5.4 3.1 3.3 -42 7
New Jersey 3.4 8.8 16.0 11.7 11.7 9.9 4.9 3.7 -51 -24
New Mexico 5.2 9.5 8.5 8.3 13.5 13.1 10.1 6.1 -23 -39
New York 6.3 13.0 16.2 15.4 18.0 17.0 10.6 7.1 -37 -33
North Carolina 4.4 5.3 8.5 9.3 12.6 10.4 3.8 2.2 -63 -42
North Dakota 2.3 3.6 4.7 6.0 6.3 5.4 3.6 3.3 -34 -6
Ohio 3.6 5.3 11.2 14.9 16.0 13.4 6.3 4.7 -53 -25
Oklahoma 6.4 8.5 7.6 9.1 10.4 8.5 3.1 2.1 -63 -34
Oregon 3.3 7.4 9.0 8.1 9.7 7.4 3.4 3.6 -55 8
Pennsylvania 5.5 8.0 13.8 12.3 14.4 12.8 6.3 6.2 -50 -3
Rhode Island 5.9 9.1 14.7 13.4 17.5 16.5 13.8 9.4 -16 -32
South Carolina 2.3 4.2 11.6 8.7 10.8 9.4 3.2 3.0 -66 -7
South Dakota 3.1 5.0 7.1 6.7 6.6 5.9 2.7 2.6 -53 -5
Tennessee 4.2 7.5 8.9 11.8 15.7 13.7 7.7 9.2 -44 19
Texas 1.7 4.1 5.2 8.7 10.4 8.8 4.2 2.1 -52 -49
Utah 3.7 5.4 4.4 4.9 4.9 4.0 2.3 1.7 -42 -25
Vermont 2.7 5.4 9.9 9.5 11.7 10.8 7.2 5.8 -33 -20
Virginia 2.2 4.1 7.9 6.8 8.4 7.0 3.1 3.2 -56 2
Washington 4.7 6.5 8.5 11.3 13.3 12.4 7.6 6.2 -39 -18
West Virginia 12.2 11.2 10.4 15.7 16.8 14.6 5.5 4.9 -62 -12
Wisconsin 2.2 3.8 10.5 12.1 11.4 9.1 2.5 2.6 -73 3
Wyoming 2.1 3.2 3.4 7.0 8.1 6.8 0.8 0.4 -89 -48

Table TANF 15.
TANF and Separate State Program (SSP) Families and Recipients: 2006

[In thousands]

  Families All Recipients Child Recipients
TANF SSP Total TANF SSP Total TANF SSP Total
U.S. Total 1,807 155 1,962 4,229 517 4,746 3,234 326 3,561
Note: Some states provide cash and other forms of assistance to specific categories of families (e.g., two-parent families) under Separate State Programs (SSPs) funded out of Maintenance of Effort (MOE) dollars rather than federal TANF funds.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance (available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/caseload/caseloadindex.htm).
Alabama 19.2 0.3 19.4 44.7 1.0 45.7 34.8 0.5 35.4
Alaska 3.6 3.6 9.8 9.8 6.8 6.8
Arizona 39.6 39.6 87.4 87.4 65.7 65.7
Arkansas 8.2 8.2 17.9 17.9 13.7 13.7
California 449.3 38.4 487.8 1,048.0 150.4 1,198.3 865.9 95.5 961.3
Colorado 14.5 14.5 37.4 37.4 27.0 27.0
Connecticut 18.5 3.9 22.3 36.8 11.5 48.4 26.5 6.8 33.4
Delaware 5.5 0.1 5.6 12.2 0.4 12.6 9.3 0.2 9.5
Dist. of Columbia 15.7 0.5 16.2 38.7 1.3 40.0 29.7 0.8 30.5
Florida 52.5 0.9 53.3 86.4 3.4 89.8 73.4 1.6 75.1
Georgia 31.8 0.1 31.9 62.6 0.4 62.9 54.7 0.2 54.9
Guam 3.1 3.1 10.8 10.8 0.0
Hawaii 7.0 2.5 9.4 17.4 9.1 26.5 12.5 5.5 18.0
Idaho 1.8 1.8 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.6
Illinois 36.3 0.9 37.2 90.1 1.8 91.9 72.5 0.7 73.2
Indiana 42.5 2.1 44.6 119.3 10.4 129.7 92.7 5.9 98.6
Iowa 16.7 4.4 21.1 40.2 9.0 49.2 28.5 3.2 31.7
Kansas 17.2 17.2 45.0 45.0 30.7 30.7
Kentucky 33.1 33.1 69.9 69.9 53.1 53.1
Louisiana 11.9 11.9 26.7 26.7 23.1 23.1
Maine 9.3 1.9 11.2 24.8 7.1 31.9 17.0 4.5 21.4
Maryland 20.4 2.8 23.2 46.9 7.2 54.0 35.3 4.8 40.1
Massachusetts 46.6 1.3 47.9 93.4 4.9 98.2 65.0 2.5 67.5
Michigan 83.0 83.0 219.8 219.8 159.8 159.8
Minnesota 27.5 3.0 30.5 66.8 13.5 80.4 49.3 7.5 56.9
Mississippi 13.4 13.4 27.8 27.8 21.3 21.3
Missouri 38.7 5.6 44.3 93.7 19.2 112.9 65.7 11.0 76.7
Montana 3.8 3.8 9.9 9.9 6.8 6.8
Nebraska 10.1 2.7 12.8 24.3 9.0 33.3 17.7 5.3 23.0
Nevada 5.4 1.6 7.0 12.2 5.0 17.2 10.1 3.0 13.1
New Hampshire 6.1 0.2 6.3 13.7 0.6 14.4 9.5 0.4 9.9
New Jersey 40.8 2.0 42.8 101.1 8.2 109.2 72.4 4.3 76.7
New Mexico 16.9 16.9 43.0 43.0 31.1 31.1
New York 134.9 43.1 178.0 307.9 147.2 455.2 225.1 96.1 321.2
North Carolina 30.2 30.2 58.8 58.8 47.5 47.5
North Dakota 2.7 2.7 6.8 6.8 4.8 4.8
Ohio 79.5 79.5 170.2 170.2 130.0 130.0
Oklahoma 10.2 10.2 22.5 22.5 18.5 18.5
Oregon 18.5 18.5 41.8 41.8 31.2 31.2
Pennsylvania 94.7 94.7 245.1 245.1 173.4 173.4
Puerto Rico 14.3 14.3 38.8 38.8 27.4 27.4
Rhode Island 9.7 2.6 12.3 24.0 7.5 31.5 16.8 5.6 22.4
South Carolina 15.7 2.4 18.1 35.5 6.9 42.4 27.2 4.1 31.3
South Dakota 2.8 2.8 6.1 6.1 5.1 5.1
Tennessee 68.1 1.2 69.4 180.0 4.8 184.8 129.3 2.9 132.2
Texas 70.8 1.9 72.7 160.8 8.2 169.1 134.5 4.4 138.9
Utah 7.5 0.0 7.5 18.2 0.1 18.4 13.5 0.1 13.6
Vermont 4.4 0.3 4.8 10.9 1.0 11.9 7.1 0.6 7.7
Virgin Islands 0.4 0.4 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.9
Virginia 9.1 25.8 35.0 26.0 56.3 82.4 16.7 41.0 57.6
Washington 54.2 1.9 56.1 128.3 7.9 136.2 90.5 4.7 95.2
West Virginia 10.9 0.6 11.5 23.7 2.6 26.4 17.7 1.3 19.0
Wisconsin 18.0 0.3 18.3 39.5 1.5 41.0 32.9 1.0 33.9
Wyoming 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.6 0.5 0.0 0.5

 

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