Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2006. Supplemental Security Income

08/30/2006

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program is a means-tested, federally administered income assistance program authorized by title XVI of the Social Security Act. Established in 1972 (Public Law 92-603) and begun in 1974, SSI provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to needy aged, blind and disabled persons. To qualify for SSI payments, a person must satisfy the program criteria for age, blindness, or disability. Children may qualify for SSI if they are under age 18 and meet the applicable SSI disability or blindness, income and resource requirements. Individuals and married couples are eligible for SSI if their countable incomes fall below the federal maximum monthly SSI benefit levels of $579 for an individual and $869 for a married couple in fiscal year 2005. SSI eligibility is restricted to qualified persons who have countable resources/assets of not more than $2,000, or $3,000 for a couple.

The Social Security Administration (SSA) administers the SSI program. Since its inception, SSI has been viewed as the “program of last resort.” Therefore, SSA helps recipients obtain any other public assistance that they are eligible to receive before providing SSI benefits. After evaluating all other income, SSI pays what is necessary to bring an individual to the statutorily prescribed income “floor.” As of December 2001, 36 percent of all SSI recipients also received Social Security retirement or survivor benefits, which are the single greatest source of income for SSI recipients.

Prior to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), no individual could receive both SSI payments and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) benefits. If eligible for both, the individual had to choose which benefit to receive. Generally, the AFDC agency encouraged individuals to file for SSI and, once the SSI payments had started, the individual was removed from the AFDC filing unit. Since states have the authority to set TANF eligibility standards and benefit levels under PRWORA, there is no federal prohibition against individuals receiving both TANF benefits and SSI.

With the exception of California, which converted food stamp benefits to cash payments that are included in the state supplementary payment, SSI recipients may be eligible to receive food stamps. If all household members receive SSI, the household is categorically eligible for food stamps and does not need to meet the Food Stamp Program’s financial eligibility standards. If SSI beneficiaries live in households in which other household members do not receive SSI benefits, the household must meet the net income eligibility standard of the Food Stamp Program to be eligible for food stamp benefits.

Legislative Changes

Several legislative changes made in the 104th Congress affected SSI participation and expenditures. Public Law 104-121, the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, prohibited SSI eligibility to individuals whose drug addiction and/or alcoholism (DAA) is a contributing factor material to the finding of disability. This provision applied to individuals who filed for benefits on or after the date of enactment (March 29, 1996) and to individuals whose claims were finally adjudicated on or after the date of enactment. It applied to current beneficiaries on January 1, 1997.

PRWORA made several changes designed to maintain the SSI program’s goal of limiting benefits to severely disabled children. First, the act replaced the former “comparable severity” test with a new definition of disability specifically for children, based on a medically determinable physical or mental impairment that results in “marked and severe functional limitations.” Second, SSA discontinued use of the Individualized Functional Assessment (IFA) which it had implemented in 1991 following the Supreme Court's decision in Sullivan v Zebley, 493 U.S. 521 (1990).1 Third, references to “maladaptive behaviors” in certain sections of the Listing of Impairments (among medical criteria for evaluation of mental and emotional disorders in the domain of personal/behavioral function) were eliminated. The latter two provisions were effective for all new and pending applications upon enactment (August 22, 1996). Beneficiaries who were receiving benefits due to an IFA or under the Listings because of limitations resulting from maladaptive behaviors received notice no later than January 1, 1997, that their benefits might end when their case was redetermined. Additional provisions of PRWORA with impact on enrollment are the requirement that eligibility be redetermined when beneficiaries reach age 18, using the adult disability standard; that "continuing disability reviews" be done for children; and that children who were eligible due to low birth weight have their eligibility redetermined at age one.

Title IV of PRWORA also made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for SSI benefits. Some of the restrictions were subsequently moderated, most notably by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which “grandfathered” immigrants who were receiving SSI at the time of enactment of the PRWORA. Those immigrants who entered the U.S. after August 22, 1996, may be eligible to receive SSI after having been “lawfully admitted for permanent residence.”

Several provisions aimed at reducing SSI fraud and improving recovery of overpayments were enacted in 1999 as part of the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (P. L. 106-169). Other legislation enacted in 1999 provides additional work incentives for disabled beneficiaries of SSI. Additionally, the Social Security Protection Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-203), enacted March 2, 2004, introduced program and beneficiary protections covering the use of representative payees and required documentation of changes in beneficiary status.

SSI Program Data

The following tables and figures provide SSI program data:

  • Tables SSI 1 through SSI 5 and Figure SSI 1 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the SSI program;
  • Table SSI 6 presents demographic characteristics of the SSI caseload;
  • Tables SSI 7 through SSI 9 present state-by-state trend data on the SSI program through fiscal year 2004.

SSI Caseload Trends (Tables SSI 1 and SSI 2 and Figure SSI 1). From 1990 to 1995, the number of SSI beneficiaries increased from 4.8 million to 6.5 million, an average growth rate of over 6 percent per year. Between 1995 and 2000, the number of beneficiaries fluctuated between 6.5 and 6.6 million persons. Between 2000 and 2004, the caseload increased from 6.6 to 9.0 million beneficiaries, an average annual growth rate of 1.4 percent. Table SSI 1 presents information on the total number of persons receiving SSI payments in December of each year from 1974 through 2004, and also presents recipients by eligibility category (aged, blind, and disabled) and by type of recipient (child, adults ages 18-64, and adults ages 65 or older). See also Tables IND 3c and IND 4c in Chapter II for further data on trends in recipiency and participation rates.

The composition of the SSI caseload has been shifting over time, as shown in Table SSI 1. The number of beneficiaries eligible because of age has been declining steadily, from a high of 2.3 million persons in December 1975 to a low of 1.2 million persons in December 2004. At the same time, there has been strong growth in blind and disabled beneficiaries, from 1.7 million in December 1974 to a little under 5.8 million in December 2004. Moreover, the number of disabled children has increased dramatically, particularly during the 1990s, when the number of disabled children receiving SSI increased from 309,000 in December 1990 to 955,000 in December 1996. The number of disabled children fell over the next three years, but has been increasing since 2000, reaching 993,000 in 2004.

Several factors have contributed to the growth of the Supplemental Security Income program. Expansions in disability eligibility (particularly for mentally impaired adults and for children), increased outreach, overall growth in immigration, and transfers from state programs were among the key factors identified in a 1995 study by the Government Accountability Office (GAO). GAO concluded that three groups – adults with mental impairments, children, and noncitizens – accounted for nearly 90 percent of the SSI program’s growth in the early 1990s. The growth in disabled children beneficiaries is generally believed to be due to outreach activities, the Supreme Court decision in the Zebley case, expansion of the medical impairment category, and reduction in reviews of continuing eligibility.2

SSI Expenditures s (Tables SSI 3 through SSI 5). While administrative costs increased by about 17 percent, the total amount paid out in SSI benefits increased from $35.3 billion (inflation adjusted) in 2001 to almost $37 billion in 2004, as shown in Table SSI 3. Average monthly benefits per person were $431 in 2004, down slightly (about 2 percent) from 1999 inflation adjusted benefit level of $440. For more details see Table SSI 4.

SSI Recipient Characteristics (Table SSI 6). Over the last 20 years, the percentage of aged SSI recipients has dramatically decreased, while the percentage of disabled recipients has increased substantially. As shown in Table SSI 6, the proportion of SSI recipients aged 65 or older has decreased dramatically, from 54 percent in 1980 to 28 percent in 2004.

Figure SSI 1. SSI Recipients, by Age: 1974 – 2004

Figure SSI 1. SSI Recipients, by Age: 1974 – 2004

Source: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Income • Annual Statistical Report • 2004 (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/policy/data_sub109.html ).


Table SSI 1. Number of Persons Receiving Federally Administered SSI Payments: 1974 – 2004 [In thousands]

Date Total Eligibility Category Type of Recipient
  Blind and Disabled   Adults
Aged Total Blind Disabled Children Age 18-64 65 or Older
Dec 1974 3,996 2,286 1,710 75 1,636 71 1 1,503 2,422
Dec 1975 4,314 2,307 2,007 74 1,933 107 1,699 2,508
Dec 1976 4,236 2,148 2,088 76 2,012 125 1,714 2,397
Dec 1977 4,238 2,051 2,187 77 2,109 147 1,738 2,353
Dec 1978 4,217 1,968 2,249 77 2,172 166 1,747 2,304
Dec 1979 4,150 1,872 2,278 77 2,201 177 1,727 2,246
Dec 1980 4,142 1,808 2,334 78 2,256 190 1,731 2,221
Dec 1981 4,019 1,678 2,341 79 2,262 195 1,703 2,121
Dec 1982 3,858 1,549 2,309 77 2,231 192 1,655 2,011
Dec 1983 3,901 1,515 2,386 79 2,307 198 1,700 2,003
Dec 1984 4,029 1,530 2,499 81 2,419 212 1,780 2,037
Dec 1985 4,138 1,504 2,634 82 2,551 227 1,879 2,031
Dec 1986 4,269 1,473 2,796 83 2,713 241 2,010 2,018
Dec 1987 4,385 1,455 2,930 83 2,846 251 2,119 2,015
Dec 1988 4,464 1,433 3,030 83 2,948 255 2,203 2,006
Dec 1989 4,593 1,439 3,154 83 3,071 265 2,302 2,026
Dec 1990 4,817 1,454 3,363 84 3,279 309 2,450 2,059
Dec 1991 5,118 1,465 3,654 85 3,569 397 2,642 2,080
Dec 1992 5,566 1,471 4,095 85 4,010 556 2,910 2,100
Dec 1993 5,984 1,475 4,509 85 4,424 723 3,148 2,113
Dec 1994 6,296 1,466 4,830 85 4,745 841 3,335 2,119
Dec 1995 6,514 1,446 5,068 84 4,984 917 3,482 2,115
Dec 1996 6,614 1,413 5,201 82 5,119 955 3,568 2,090
Dec 1997 6,495 1,362 5,133 81 5,052 880 3,562 2,054
Dec 1998 6,566 1,332 5,234 80 5,154 887 3,646 2,033
Dec 1999 6,557 1,308 5,249 79 5,169 847 3,691 2,019
Dec 2000 6,602 1,289 5,312 79 5,234 847 3,744 2,011
Dec 2001 6,688 1,264 5,424 78 5,346 882 3,811 1,995
Dec 2002 6,788 1,252 5,537 78 5,459 915 3,878 1,995
Dec 2003 6,902 1,233 5,670 77 5,593 959 3,878 1,990
Dec 2004 6,988 1,211 5,777 76 5,701 993 4,017 1,978

1 Includes students 18-21 in 1974 only.

Source: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Income • Annual Statistical Report • 2005 (available online at www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/statcomps/ ).


Table SSI 2. SSI Recipiency Rates: 1974 – 2004 [In percent]

Date All Recipients as a Percent of Total Population 1 Adults 18-64 as a Percent of 18-64 Population 1 Child Recipients as a Percent of All Children 1 Elderly Recipients (Persons 65 & Older) as a Percent of
All Persons 65 & Older 1 All Elderly Poor 2
Dec 1974 1.9 1.2 0.1 10.8 78.5
Dec 1975 2.0 1.3 0.2 10.9 75.6
Dec 1976 1.9 1.3 0.2 10.2 72.4
Dec 1977 1.9 1.3 0.2 9.7 74.1
Dec 1978 1.9 1.3 0.3 9.3 71.5
Dec 1979 1.8 1.3 0.3 8.8 61.3
Dec 1980 1.8 1.2 0.3 8.6 57.5
Dec 1981 1.7 1.2 0.3 8.0 55.0
Dec 1982 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.4 53.6
Dec 1983 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.3 55.2
Dec 1984 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.2 61.2
Dec 1985 1.7 1.3 0.4 7.1 58.7
Dec 1986 1.8 1.3 0.4 6.9 57.9
Dec 1987 1.8 1.4 0.4 6.7 56.5
Dec 1988 1.8 1.5 0.4 6.6 57.6
Dec 1989 1.9 1.5 0.4 6.5 60.3
Dec 1990 1.9 1.6 0.5 6.5 56.3
Dec 1991 2.0 1.7 0.6 6.5 55.0
Dec 1992 2.2 1.9 0.8 6.4 53.5
Dec 1993 2.3 2.0 1.1 6.4 56.3
Dec 1994 2.4 2.1 1.2 6.3 57.9
Dec 1995 2.4 2.2 1.3 6.2 63.7
Dec 1996 2.4 2.2 1.4 6.1 61.0
Dec 1997 2.4 2.2 1.2 6.0 60.8
Dec 1998 2.4 2.2 1.2 5.9 60.0
Dec 1999 2.3 2.2 1.2 5.8 62.7
Dec 2000 2.3 2.1 1.2 5.7 60.5
Dec 2001 2.3 2.1 1.2 5.6 58.4
Dec 2002 2.3 2.1 1.3 5.6 55.8
Dec 2003 2.4 2.2 1.3 5.5 56.0
Dec 2004 2.4 2.2 1.4 5.4 57.2

1 Population numbers used for the denominators are Census Bureau resident population estimates adjusted to the December date by averaging the July 1 population of the current year with the July 1 population of the following year (resident population estimates by age are available online at http://www.census.gov).
2 For the number of persons (65 years of age and older living in poverty) used as the denominator, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-229.

Notes: Numerators for these ratios are from Table SSI 1. Rates computed by DHHS.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004," Current Population Reports, Series P60-229, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html ).


Table SSI 3. Total, Federal, and State SSI Benefits and Administration: 1974 – 2004 [In millions of dollars]

Calendar Year Total Benefits Federal Payments State Supplementation Administrative Costs (fiscal year)
2004 2 Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally Administered State Administered
1974 17,577 $5,246 $3,833 $1,413 $1,264 $149 $285
1975 18,190 5,878 4,314 1,565 1,403 162 399
1976 17,753 6,066 4,512 1,554 1,388 166 500
1977 17,348 6,306 4,703 1,603 1,431 172 526
1978 17,281 6,552 4,881 1,671 1,491 180 539
1979 17,058 7,075 5,279 1,797 1,590 207 611
1980 17,241 7,941 5,866 2,074 1,848 226 668
1981 17,056 8,593 6,518 2,076 1,839 237 717
1982 16,830 8,981 6,907 2,074 1,798 276 780
1983 16,920 9,404 7,423 1,982 1,711 270 846
1984 17,945 10,372 8,281 2,091 1,792 299 864
1985 18,519 11,060 8,777 2,283 1,973 311 956
1986 19,865 12,081 9,498 2,583 2,243 340 1,023
1987 20,594 12,951 10,029 2,922 2,563 359 977
1988 21,152 13,786 10,734 3,052 2,671 381 976
1989 22,037 14,980 11,606 3,374 2,955 419 1,052
1990 23,262 16,599 12,894 3,705 3,239 466 1,075
1991 25,054 18,524 14,765 3,759 3,231 529 1,230
1992 29,334 22,233 18,247 3,986 3,435 550 1,426
1993 31,613 24,557 20,722 3,835 3,270 566 1,468
1994 32,624 25,877 22,175 3,701 3,116 585 1,780
1995 34,006 27,628 23,919 3,708 3,118 590 1,978
1996 34,513 28,792 25,265 3,527 2,988 539 1,953
1997 34,097 29,052 25,457 3,595 2,913 682 2,055
1998 34,971 30,216 26,405 3,812 3,003 808 2,304
1999 35,051 30,923 26,805 4,154 3,301 853 2,493
2000 34,623 31,564 27,290 4,274 3,381 893 2,321
2001 35,279 33,061 28,706 4,355 3,460 895 2,397
2002 36,309 34,567 29,899 4,668 3,820 848 2,522
2003 36,562 35,605 30,688 4,917 4,005 912 2,656
2004 36,961 36,961 31,887 5,075 4,179 896 2,806

1 Payments and adjustments during the respective year but not necessarily accrued for that year
2 Data adjusted for inflation by ASPE using the CPI-U-RS for calendar years.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 and 2005 Annual Report of the SSI Program, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/statcomps/ and http://wwwssagov/OACT/SSIR/SSI05 ).


Table SSI 4. Average Monthly SSI Benefit Payments: 1974 – 2004

Calendar Year Total 1 Federal Payments State Supplementation
2004 Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally Administered State Administered
1974 $451 $135 $108 $64 $71 $35
1975 348 112 92 66 69 45
1976 345 118 99 68 71 50
1977 337 123 104 69 72 53
1978 338 128 108 72 74 56
1979 338 140 119 77 79 67
1980 343 158 133 89 91 76
1981 349 176 151 92 94 79
1982 359 191 166 96 97 93
1983 356 198 172 91 92 89
1984 365 211 187 93 93 93
1985 367 219 193 99 99 102
1986 381 232 202 107 108 101
1987 385 242 208 117 118 110
1988 388 253 219 118 118 118
1989 393 267 230 126 126 127
1990 397 283 244 132 131 136
1991 402 297 260 125 122 143
1992 433 328 292 124 121 147
1993 434 337 306 112 107 150
1994 426 338 310 105 99 152
1995 431 350 322 110 103 164
1996 431 359 333 108 103 145
1997 433 369 342 99 102 86
1998 438 379 350 103 104 102
1999 440 388 356 111 113 105
2000 432 393 360 113 114 109
2001 434 407 373 113 114 108
2002 436 415 383 129 129 128
2003 432 421 387 136 135 138
2004 431 431 397 139 139 135

1 Total is a weighted average of the federal plus state average benefit, the federal-only average benefit, and state- only average benefit.

Note: The numerators for these averages are given in Table SSI 3 and the denominators are given in Table SSI 5. Averages were computed by DHHS. Data adjusted for inflation using a calendar-year average CPI-U-RS index.

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2005 (available online at http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/statcomps/ ).


Table SSI 5. Number of Persons Receiving SSI Payments, by Type of Payment: 1974 – 2004 (in thousands)

  Total Federal State Supplementation
Total Federally Administered State Administered
Jan 1974.................................... 3,249 2,956 1,839 1,480 358
Dec 1975.................................... 4,360 3,893 1,987 1,684 303
Dec 1980.................................... 4,194 3,682 1,934 1,685 249
Dec 1984.................................... 4,094 3,699 1,875 1,607 268
Dec 1985.................................... 4,200 3,799 1,916 1,661 255
Dec 1986.................................... 4,347 3,922 2,003 1,723 279
Dec 1987.................................... 4,458 4,019 2,079 1,807 272
Dec 1988.................................... 4,541 4,089 2,155 1,885 270
Dec 1989.................................... 4,673 4,206 2,224 1,950 275
Dec 1990.................................... 4,888 4,412 2,344 2,058 286
Dec 1991.................................... 5,200 4,730 2,512 2,204 308
Dec 1992.................................... 5,647 5,202 2,684 2,372 313
Dec 1993.................................... 6,065 5,636 2,850 2,536 314
Dec 1994.................................... 6,377 5,965 2,950 2,628 322
Dec 1995.................................... 6,576 6,194 2,817 2,518 300
Dec 1996.................................... 6,677 6,326 2,732 2,421 310
Dec 1997.................................... 6,565 6,212 3,029 2,372 657
Dec 1998.................................... 6,649 6,289 3,072 2,412 661
Dec 1999.................................... 6,641 6,275 3,116 2,441 675
Dec 2000.................................... 6,685 6,320 3,164 2,481 683
Dec 2001.................................... 6,776 6,410 3,209 2,520 689
Dec 2002.................................... 6,940 6,505 3,014 2,462 553
Dec 2003.................................... 7,052 6,614 3,019 2,467 551
Dec 2004.................................... 7,139 6,695 3,050 2,498 552

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2005 (available online at www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/statcomps/ ).


Table SSI 6. Characteristics of SSI Recipients, by Age, Sex, Earnings/Income and Citizenship: Selected Years 1980-2004

  1980 1985 1990 1994 1998 2000 2002 2004
  Total
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
under 18 5.5 5.5 6.4 13.4  13.5 12.8 13.5 14.2
18-64 40.9 45.4 50.9 53.0  55.5 56.7 57.2 57.6
65 or older 53.6 49.1 42.7 33.7  31.0 30.5 29.3 28.2
Sex
Male 34.4 35.2 37.2 41.3  41.3 41.5 42.0 42.7
Female 65.5 64.8 62.8 58.7  58.7 58.5 58.0 57.3
Selected Sources of Income
Earnings 3.2 3.8 4.7 4.2  4.5 4.4 4.1 3.4
Social Security 51.0 49.4 45.9 39.1  36.5 36.1 35.5 34.9
No other income 34.8 34.5 36.4 43.6  47.3 54.4 55.1 55.5
Noncitizens NA 5.1 9.0 11.7  10.2 10.5 10.4 9.7
Eligibility Category
Aged 43.6 36.4 30.2 23.3  20.3 19.5 18.4 17.3
Blind 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.4  1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1
Disabled 54.5 61.7 68.1 75.4  78.5 79.3 80.4 81.6
  Aged
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
65-69 14.0 14.9 19.4 20.5  17.6 17.6 15.3 15.0
70-79 51.5 45.6 41.3 44.3  48.4 48.4 49.1 47.3
80 or older 34.5 39.5 39.2 35.1  34.0 34.0 35.7 37.6
Sex
Male 27.3 25.5 25.1 26.8  27.8 27.8 29.9 30.7
Female 72.6 74.5 74.9 73.2  72.2 72.2 70.1 69.3
Noncitizens NA 9.7 19.4 30.0  27.0 27.0 29.2 28.3
  Blind and Disabled
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
18-64 80.2 77.7 80.0 83.4  83.6 83.6 83.8 83.9
65 or older 19.8 22.3 20.0 16.6  16.4 16.4 16.1 16.0
Sex1
Male 39.8 40.8 42.4 41.8  41.1 41.1 44.8 41.1
Female 60.2 59.2 57.6 58.2  58.9 58.9 55.2 58.9
Noncitizens NA 2.4 4.6 6.2  5.5 5.5 7.2 5.8
  Children
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 5 11.7 NA NA 15.8  15.8 15.8 16.1 15.9
5-9 20.9 NA NA 28.5  30.2 30.2 26.8 26.8
10-14 28.8 NA NA 32.7  34.6 34.6 36.9 36.2
15-17 21.7 NA NA 17.3  19.4 19.4 20.2 21.1
18-212 16.8 14.3 9.3 5.7 
Sex
Male NA NA NA 63.0  62.9 62.9 64.3 65.0
Female NA NA NA 37.0  37.1 37.1 35.7 35.0

Note: Data are for December of the year.

1 For 1980-1992 male-female classification reflects all blind and disabled, both children and adults; thereafter, it is based on adults only.
2 In this table, students 18-21 are classified as children prior to 1998.

Source: Social Security Administration, Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2005 and prior years (available online at www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/statcomps/ ).


Table SSI 7. Total SSI Payments, Federal SSI Payments And State Supplementary Payments Calendar Year 2004 (In thousands)

State 1 Total Total Federal Federal SSI State Supplementation
Federally Administered State Administered
Total $36,961,099 $36,065,358 $31,886,509 $4,178,849 $895,741
Alabama 761,277 760,957 760,957 320
Alaska 106,547 50,662 50,662 55,885
Arizona 458,229 457,851 457,851 378
Arkansas 383,431 383,431 383,429 2
California 7,906,339 7,906,339 4,760,736 3,145,603
Colorado 342,924 252,610 252,610 90,314
Connecticut 334,933 253,256 253,256 81,677
Delaware 62,616 62,616 61,549 1,067
District of Columbia 106,383 106,383 102,678 3,705
Florida 1,962,691 1,953,493 1,953,493 9,198
Georgia 915,615 915,615 915,614 1
Hawaii 117,992 117,992 104,800 13,192
Idaho 105,400 97,438 97,438 7,962
Illinois 1,325,869 1,298,365 1,298,365 27,504
Indiana 466,957 463,067 463,067 3,890
Iowa 203,078 186,236 182,776 3,460 16,842
Kansas 181,375 181,375 181,375
Kentucky 864,280 846,731 846,731 17,549
Louisiana 798,744 798,293 798,289 4 451
Maine 159,949 140,521 140,521 19,428
Maryland 471,894 463,222 463,209 13 8,672
Massachusetts 878,252 878,252 711,896 166,356
Michigan 1,202,763 1,123,442 1,099,608 23,834 79,321
Minnesota 425,287 333,966 333,966 91,321
Mississippi 560,901 560,901 560,887 14
Missouri 579,940 553,147 553,147 26,793
Montana 66,368 66,368 65,493 875
Nebraska 107,758 101,433 101,433 6,325
Nevada 153,518 153,518 148,185 5,333
New Hampshire 73,026 61,402 61,402 11,624
New Jersey 749,659 749,659 667,679 81,980
New Mexico 234,105 233,867 233,867 238
New York 3,501,526 3,501,526 2,947,634 553,892
North Carolina 987,781 857,751 857,751 130,030
North Dakota 34,475 32,522 32,522 1,953
Ohio 1,230,591 1,230,591 1,230,591
Oklahoma 396,406 358,762 358,762 37,644
Oregon 300,216 279,920 279,920 20,296
Pennsylvania 1,671,940 1,671,940 1,524,713 147,227
Rhode Island 156,058 156,058 132,346 23,712
South Carolina 485,550 474,236 474,236 11,314
South Dakota 55,143 52,536 52,534 2 2,607
Tennessee 740,629 740,629 740,628 1
Texas 2,032,309 2,031,351 2,031,351 958
Utah 103,268 103,268 103,223 45
Vermont 60,256 60,256 51,629 8,627
Virginia 626,621 607,846 607,846 18,775
Washington 581,764 581,536 581,536 228
West Virginia 366,387 366,387 366,387
Wisconsin 532,039 416,503 416,503 115,536
Wyoming 26,363 25,655 25,655 708
Other: N. Mariana Islands 3,762 3,762 3,762

1 Columns do not add to totals since the totals include a small amount of payments not distributed by jurisdiction.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2005 (available online at www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/statcomps/ ).


Table SSI 8. SSI Recipiency Rates by State And Program Type for 1979 and 2004 [In percent]

  Total Recipiency Rate Rate for Adults 18-64 Rate for Adults 65 & Over
  1979 2004 Percent Change 1979-04 1979 2004 Percent Change 1979-04 1979 2004 Percent Change 1979-04
Total 1.9 2.4 30 1.3 2.2 75 9.0 5.4 -40
Alabama 3.6 3.6 1 1.8 3.5 91 21.0 6.1 -71
Alaska 0.8 1.6 108 0.5 1.6 196 14.0 7.2 -49
Arizona 1.1 1.6 44 0.9 1.6 80 5.0 3.1 -38
Arkansas 3.5 3.2 -9 1.9 3.0 60 17.1 5.2 -70
California 3.0 3.3 9 2.1 2.6 27 16.4 13.3 -19
Colorado 1.1 1.2 9 0.8 1.1 43 6.7 3.0 -55
Connecticut 0.8 1.5 100 0.6 1.5 138 2.7 2.6 -4
Delaware 1.2 1.6 34 0.9 1.5 60 5.4 2.2 -59
District of Columbia 2.3 3.8 67 1.9 3.3 72 8.6 6.4 -25
Florida 1.8 2.4 35 1.1 1.9 67 6.2 4.7 -24
Georgia 2.9 2.3 -20 1.9 2.1 11 17.7 6.2 -65
Hawaii 1.1 1.8 71 0.7 1.6 132 7.6 5.0 -34
Idaho 0.8 1.5 90 0.6 1.6 150 3.8 1.9 -50
Illinois 1.1 2.0 85 1.0 1.9 100 4.3 3.8 -11
Indiana 0.8 1.5 100 0.6 1.7 179 3.3 1.6 -52
Iowa 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.6 158 3.5 1.6 -54
Kansas 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.5 138 3.5 1.8 -48
Kentucky 2.5 4.3 69 1.8 4.5 151 12.5 6.7 -47
Louisiana 3.4 3.8 13 2.0 3.6 77 20.1 7.2 -64
Maine 2.0 2.4 23 1.4 2.7 94 8.6 2.9 -66
Maryland 1.2 1.7 48 0.9 1.5 60 5.4 3.9 -28
Massachusetts 2.2 2.6 16 1.3 2.5 95 10.8 5.6 -48
Michigan 1.3 2.2 75 1.1 2.3 115 5.9 2.9 -50
Minnesota 0.8 1.4 73 0.6 1.4 155 3.7 2.6 -30
Mississippi 4.5 4.3 -4 2.4 4.0 65 26.0 9.1 -65
Missouri 1.8 2.0 14 1.1 2.1 91 7.9 2.7 -66
Montana 0.9 1.6 80 0.7 1.7 136 3.8 1.9 -50
Nebraska 0.9 1.3 48 0.6 1.4 119 3.4 1.7 -50
Nevada 0.8 1.4 67 0.5 1.2 126 5.9 3.3 -44
New Hampshire 0.6 1.0 72 0.4 1.1 150 2.5 1.2 -53
New Jersey 1.1 1.7 49 0.9 1.5 74 4.7 4.5 -4
New Mexico 2.0 2.7 37 1.4 2.5 82 12.4 6.8 -45
New York 2.1 3.3 56 1.6 2.8 76 8.3 8.9 8
North Carolina 2.4 2.3 -4 1.6 2.1 33 13.6 4.8 -65
North Dakota 1.0 1.3 31 0.6 1.3 128 5.1 2.0 -60
Ohio 1.1 2.1 89 1.0 2.3 132 4.2 2.4 -42
Oklahoma 2.3 2.2 -5 1.3 2.2 65 11.6 3.5 -70
Oregon 0.9 1.6 86 0.7 1.7 143 3.3 2.7 -18
Pennsylvania 1.4 2.6 86 1.1 2.6 132 5.0 3.3 -33
Rhode Island 1.6 2.7 70 1.1 2.7 150 6.4 4.8 -25
South Carolina 2.7 2.5 -7 1.8 2.3 29 17.0 4.9 -71
South Dakota 1.1 1.6 40 0.7 1.6 122 5.0 2.9 -42
Tennessee 2.9 2.7 -6 1.9 2.7 44 14.8 4.9 -67
Texas 1.9 2.1 11 1.0 1.7 79 12.7 7.2 -43
Utah 0.6 0.9 64 0.5 1.0 96 3.0 1.8 -41
Vermont 1.8 2.1 19 1.3 2.2 68 8.1 3.2 -60
Virginia 1.5 1.8 20 1.0 1.6 57 8.5 4.2 -51
Washington 1.2 1.8 55 1.0 1.8 84 4.8 3.6 -25
West Virginia 2.1 4.2 97 1.9 4.8 158 8.0 4.5 -43
Wisconsin 1.4 1.6 11 1.0 1.7 77 6.5 2.2 -66
Wyoming 0.4 1.1 162 0.3 1.2 314 2.7 1.4 -49

Note: Recipiency rates for 2004 are the ratios of the number of SSI recipients (in the respective age groups) as of the month of December to the estimated population in the respective age group as of the month of July; calculations by DHHS. The 1979 rates are based on the average number of recipients during the year.

Source: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Income • Annual Statistical Report • 2005 and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/ ).


Table SSI 9. SSI Recipiency Rates, by State: Selected Fiscal Years 1975 – 2004 [In percent]

  1975 1980 1985 1990 19942 19982 20022 20042
Total 1 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
Alabama 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6
Alaska 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6
Arizona 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6
Arkansas 4.1 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.8 3.5 3.1 3.2
California 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3
Colorado 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2
Connecticut 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5
Delaware 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
District of Columbia 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.8
Florida 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4
Georgia 3.3 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.3
Hawaii 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
Idaho 1.1 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5
Illinois 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0
Indiana 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Iowa 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
Kansas 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
Kentucky 2.8 2.6 2.7 3.1 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.3
Louisiana 3.9 3.2 2.9 3.2 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.8
Maine 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4
Maryland 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.7
Massachusetts 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.0 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.6
Michigan 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.5 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2
Minnesota 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4
Mississippi 5.2 4.4 4.3 4.4 5.2 4.9 4.4 4.3
Missouri 2.1 1.7 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0
Montana 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Nebraska 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
Nevada 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4
New Hampshire 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0
New Jersey 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
New Mexico 2.3 1.9 1.8 2.1 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7
New York 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3
North Carolina 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.3
North Dakota 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3
Ohio 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1
Oklahoma 3.0 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2
Oregon 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
Pennsylvania 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.6 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.6
Rhode Island 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.7
South Carolina 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.5
South Dakota 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.6
Tennessee 3.2 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.4 3.1 2.8 2.7
Texas 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1
Utah 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9
Vermont 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Virginia 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.8
Washington 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8
West Virginia 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.6 3.5 3.9 4.1 4.2
Wisconsin 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.8 2.2 1.7 1.6 1.6
Wyoming 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1

1 The number of SSI recipients used to calculate the total recipiency rate includes a certain number of recipients whose state is unknown. For 1975, 1985, and 1992, the numbers of unknown (in thousands) were 256, 14, and 71 respectively.
2 For 1975-92 the percentages are calculated as the average number of monthly SSI recipients over the total population of each state in July of that year. For 1994-2003 the number of recipients is from the month of December; calculations by DHHS.

Source: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Income • Annual Statistical Report • 2005, and Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/)


1 In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that the IFA (or a residual functional capacity assessment) that applied to adults whose condition did not meet or equal a listing of medical impairments to determine eligibility should also be applied to children whose condition did not meet or equal the medical listing of impairments.

2 The GAO study estimated that 87,000 children were added to the SSI caseload after the IFA for children was initiated.

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