Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2006. Indicator 6. Dependence Transitions

08/30/2006

Figure IND 6. Dependency Status in 2003 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2002, by Race/Ethnicity

Figure IND 6. Dependency Status in 2003 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2002, by Race/Ethnicity

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2001 panel.


  • Recipients of means-tested assistance were more likely to move out of dependency in the early 2000s than in the early 1990s. About three-tenths (28 percent) of recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total income from means-tested assistance programs in 2002 transitioned out of this dependency status in 2003. The comparable transition rate was only 20 percent between 1993 and 1994, as shown in Table IND 6b.
  • Of the recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total income from AFDC/TANF, food stamps and/or SSI in 2002, Hispanics were less likely to be dependent in 2003 than non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks.
  • As shown in Table IND 6a, men between the ages of 16 and 64 who received more than half of their total income from means-tested assistance programs in 2002 remained dependent in 2003 in higher percentages than women.

Table IND 6a. Dependency Status in 2003 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2002, by Race/Ethnicity and Age

Individuals Receiving More than 50 Percent of Income from Assistance in 2002 Total (thousands) Percentage of Persons Receiving
No Aid in 2003 Up to 50% in 2003 Over 50% in 2003
All Persons 6,023 2.6 25.8 71.6
Racial/Ethnic Categories
Non-Hispanic White 2,222 4.6 24.6 70.8
Non-Hispanic Black 2,225 1.7 25.7 72.6
Hispanic 1,077 0.7 30.2 69.1
Age Categories
Children Ages 0-5 853 2.9 33.9 63.2
Children Ages 6-10 697 1.3 27.9 70.9
Children Ages 11-15 648 0.0 24.8 75.2
Women Ages 16-64 2,271 3.7 27.3 69.0
Men Ages 16-64 1,090 3.1 17.9 79.0
Adults Ages 65 and over 447 0.9 20.3 78.8

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, food stamps and SSI. While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income. Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Individual age categories do not add to total because of a small number of people not reporting age.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2001 panel.


Table IND 6b. Dependency Status of All Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in Previous Year

  Total (thousands) Percentage of Persons Receiving
No Aid in Second Year Up to 50% in Second Year Over 50% in Second Year
Transitions from:
1993 to 1994 14,810 1.6 18.6 79.8
1994 to 1995 13,986 2.7 18.8 78.5
1997 to 1998 9,672 3.1 28.8 68.1
1998 to 1999 8,163 2.9 27.1 70.0
2001 to 2002 6,258 1.5 29.2 69.3
2002 to 2003 6,023 2.6 25.8 71.6

Note: Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, some transitions between 1994 and 1995 were based on twelve-month periods that did not correspond exactly to calendar years. While only affecting a small number of cases, veterans pension benefits are included in means-tested assistance income for receipt and dependence estimates prior to 2001.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1993, 1996 and 2001 panels.

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